Highlights / Data

Search Results

Total Results: 1022

Row # Type Reference Sequence
(ID.Version)
Position Position Footnote Pair Interaction Type Interaction ID Alteration Organism TaxID Cell Location ID Phenotype Reference(s) Row #
Row # Type Reference Sequence
(ID.Version)
Position Position Footnote Pair Interaction Type Interaction ID Alteration Organism TaxID Cell Location ID Phenotype Reference(s) Row #
16S  96080.1  11    23  HELIX  134693020  G to A  E. coli  562  U23 suppressor. b  Dammel, C.S. and Noller, H.F. (1993). Genes and Development 7, 660-670. 
16S  96080.1  13    21  HELIX  134693020  U to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Intermediate level streptomycin resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292. 
16S  96080.1  13  21  HELIX  134693020  U to A  E. coli  562  Reduction of both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin binding.c  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.  
16S  96080.1  13  21  HELIX  134693020  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduction of both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin binding.c  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.  
16S  96080.1  13  21  HELIX  134693020  U to A  E. coli  562  Impaired growth. Double mutant (U13A / A914U).  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.  
16S  96080.1  13  21  HELIX  134693020  U to A  E. coli  562  No suppression of U13 effects.c Double mutant (U13A / A914U).  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.  
16S  96080.1  13  21  HELIX  134693020  U to C  E. coli  562  No suppression of U13 effects.c Double mutant (U13C / A914G).  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.  
16S  96080.1  15  FREE  134701120  G to A  E. coli  562  Moderate U23 suppressor.b  Dammel, C.S. and Noller, H.F. (1993). Genes and Development 7, 660-670. 
16S  96080.1  17    918  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  U to C  E. coli  562  30% decrease in CAT activity. b  Poot R.A., van den Worm SHE, Pleij CWA, van Duin J. 1998. Base complementarity in helix 2 of the central psuedoknot in 16S rRNA is essential for ribosome functioning. Nucleic Acids Research 26 (2): 549-553. 
10  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to A  E. coli  562  Inhibits translation. Mutant 30S particles are impaired in forming 70S tight couples.  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.   10 
11  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to A  E. coli  562  Dramatic reduction in translational activity.b  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  11 
12  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to G  E. coli  562  Dramatic reduction in translational activity.b  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  12 
13  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to U  E. coli  562  Dramatic reduction in translational activity.b  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  13 
14  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to A  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (C18A / G917U).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  14 
15  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to G  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (C18G / G917C).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  15 
16  16S  96080.1  18    917  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  C to U  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (C18U / G917A).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  16 
17  16S  96080.1  19    916  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  A to C  E. coli  562  30% residuak activity. b  Poot R.A., van den Worm S.H.E, Pleij C.W.A., van Duin J. 1998. Base complementarity in helix 2 of the central psuedoknot in 16S rRNA is essential for ribosome functioning. Nucleic Acids Research 26 (2): 549-553.  17 
18  16S  96080.1  23    11  HELIX  134693020  C to U  E. coli  562  Cold-sensitive dominant. b  Dammel, C.S. and Noller, H.F. (1993). Genes and Development 7, 660-670.  18 
19  16S  96080.1  23    11  HELIX  134693020  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant cold-sensitive phenotype and a defetive maturation of the 16S rRNA 5' end.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc. H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486.  19 
20  23S  96092.1  33    MULTISTEM  134737504  C to U  E. coli  562  Suppressor of temperature-sensitive protein L24 mutation. a  Nishi, K. and Schnier, J. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 1373-1376.  20 
21  16S  96080.1  52    359  HELIX  134693272  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc growth abolished by G359A alone. b Double mutant (C52U/G359A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   21 
22  16S  96080.1  146    176  HELIX  134693668  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcs recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   22 
23  16S  96080.1  146    176  HELIX  134693668  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcs.b Double mutant (G146A/C176U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   23 
24  16S  96080.1  153    168  HELIX  134693704  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   24 
25  16S  96080.1  153    168  HELIX  134693704  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts.b Double mutant (C153U/G168A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   25 
26  16S  96080.1  168    153  HELIX  134693704  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts.b Double mutant (G168A/C153U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   26 
27  16S  96080.1  176    146  HELIX  134693668  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcs.b Double mutant (C176U/G146A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   27 
28  16S  96080.1  189    HAIRPIN  134697628  A to G  E. coli  562  No effect on S20 binding. c Double mutant (A189G/A190G).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   28 
29  16S  96080.1  190    HAIRPIN  134697628  A to G  E. coli  562  No effect on S20 binding. c Double mutant (A190G/A189G).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   29 
30  16S  96080.1  250    BULGE  134697808  A to G  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (A250G/G251A).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   30 
31  16S  96080.1  251    BULGE  134697808  G to A  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (G251A/A250G).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   31 
32  16S  96080.1  321    332  HELIX  134694064  A to C  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding. c  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   32 
33  16S  96080.1  321    332  HELIX  134694064  A to G  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding. c  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   33 
34  16S  96080.1  321    332  HELIX  134694064  A to C  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (A321C/G322U).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   34 
35  16S  96080.1  321    332  HELIX  134694064  A to G  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (A321G/G322A).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   35 
36  16S  96080.1  322    HAIRPIN  134697952  C to A  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c   Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   36 
37  16S  96080.1  322    HAIRPIN  134697952  G to A  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (G322A/A321G).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   37 
38  16S  96080.1  322    HAIRPIN  134697952  G to U  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding.c Double mutant (G322U/A321C).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   38 
39  16S  96080.1  323    HAIRPIN  134697952  U to G  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding. c  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   39 
40  16S  96080.1  332    321  HELIX  134694064  G to A  E. coli  562  Abolished S20 binding. c  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   40 
41  16S  96080.1  339    350  HELIX  134694100  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts.b Double mutant (C339U/G350A)  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   41 
42  16S  96080.1  350    339  HELIX  134694100  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   42 
43  16S  96080.1  350    339  HELIX  134694100  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts.b Double mutant (G350A/C339U)  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   43 
44  16S  96080.1  352    MULTISTEM  134700508  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S20 binding. c Double mutant (C352U/A353G).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   44 
45  16S  96080.1  353    MULTISTEM  134700508  A to G  E. coli  562  No effect on S20 binding. c Double mutant (A353G/C352U).  Cormack, R.S. and Mackie, G.A. (1991). J. Biol. Chem. 266, 18525-18529.   45 
46  16S  96080.1  359    52  HELIX  134693272  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcs recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   46 
47  16S  96080.1  359    52  HELIX  134693272  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc growth abolished by G359A alone. b Double mutant (G359A/C52U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   47 
48  23S  96092.1  424    268  HELIX  134724976  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C. A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  48 
49  16S  96080.1  505    526  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) streptomycin at elevated temperature; cold-sensitive growth on ampicillin; Spccs. b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   49 
50  16S  96080.1  505    526  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) streptomycins. b Double mutant (G505C/G506C).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   50 
51  16S  96080.1  506    525  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) lethal under control of natural promoter. b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   51 
52  16S  96080.1  506    525  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) U525 suppresses severe growth defect of A506; A 506 suppresses the weak growht defect of U525; streptomycins. b Double mutant (G506A/C525U).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   52 
53  16S  96080.1  506    525  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) streptomycins. b Double mutant (G506C/G505C).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   53 
54  16S  96080.1  507    524  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) reduced growth at elevated temperatures on ampicilin; streptomycin. b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   54 
55  16S  96080.1  507    524  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) reduced growth at elevated temperatures; streptomycin; slight stimulation of growth at elevated temperatures in the presence of streptomycin. b Double mutant (C507U/G524A).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   55 
56  16S  96080.1  517    INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  S. cerevisiae  4932    Increased sensitivity to streptomycin in S. cerevisiae.  Chernoff, U.O., Vincent, A., and Liebman, A.W. (1994). Embo J. 13, 96-913.  56 
57  16S  96080.1  517    INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Ochre nonsense suppressor in yeast mitochondria.  Shen, Z. and Fox, T.D. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 4534-4539.  57 
58  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors; G517A had most deleterious effect on cell growth. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  58 
59  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors; G517A had most deleterious effect on cell growth. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  59 
60  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors; G517A had most deleterious effect on cell growth. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  60 
61  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased translational error rate. b Increased level of chemical modification at positions 530, 531 & 532 in 70S ribosomes.c   O'Connor et al., 1992; Van Ryk and Dahlberg,1995; O'Connor et al.,1995.  61 
62  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased translational error rate. b Increased level of chemical modification at positions 530, 531 & 532 in 70S ribosomes.c   O'Connor et al., 1992; Van Ryk and Dahlberg,1995; O'Connor et al.,1995.  62 
63  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Increased translational error rate. b Increased level of chemical modification at positions 530, 531 & 532 in 70S ribosomes.c   O'Connor et al., 1992; Van Ryk and Dahlberg,1995; O'Connor et al.,1995.  63 
64  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors. b Double mutant (G517U/U534G).  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  64 
65  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  U to A  E. coli  562  Polysome formation severely inhibited while tight couple formation was not disturbed.  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.   65 
66  16S  96080.1  517  INTERNAL  134698384  del G  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  66 
67  16S  96080.1  523    BULGE  134698420  A to C  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Streptomycin resistance in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  Gauthier, A., Turmel, M. and Lemieux, C. (1988) Mol. Gen. Genet. 214: 192-197.   67 
68  16S  96080.1  523    BULGE  134698420  A to C  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Streptomycin resistance in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  68 
69  16S  96080.1  523    BULGE  134698420  A to C  E. coli  562  Streptomycinr. b  Melancon, P., Lemieux, C., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 9631-9639.   69 
70  16S  96080.1  524    507  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to A  E. coli  562  (With 1192) lethal under natural promoter. b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   70 
71  16S  96080.1  524    507  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) reduced growth at elevated temperatures; streptomycin; slight stimulation of growth at elevated temperatures in the presence of streptomycin. b Double mutant (G524A/C507U).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   71 
72  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to A  Nicotiana  4085  Streptomycin resistance in Nicotiana chloroplast.  Etzold et al., 1987.  72 
73  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Low level streptomycin resistance in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  73 
74  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  Euglena gracilis  3039  Streptomycin resistance in Euglena gracilis chloroplast.  Montandon, P.E., Nicholas, P., Schurman, P. and Stutz, E. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 4299-4310.   74 
75  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  Nicotiana  4085  Streptomycin resistance in Nicotiana chloroplast  Fromm, H., Galun, E. and Edelman, M. (1989) Plant Molecular Biology 12:499-505.  75 
76  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  Nicotiana  4085  Streptomycin resistance in tobacco chloroplast  Fromm, H., Galun, E. and Edelman, M. (1989) Plant Molecular Biology 12:499-505.  76 
77  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  E. coli  562  Streptomycin; (With U1192) slightly Spcts b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   77 
78  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to G  E. coli  562  Lethal. b Double mutant (C525G/C526G).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   78 
79  16S  96080.1  525    506  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) U525 suppresses severe growth defect of A506; A506 suppresses the weak growth defect of U525; streptomycins. b Double mutant (C525U/C506A).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   79 
80  16S  96080.1  526    505  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) reduced cell growth on ampicillin; Spcs. b  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   80 
81  16S  96080.1  526    505  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to U  N. plumbaginifolia  4092    Extra PvuII site in region coding for 530-loop in N. plumbaginifolia.  Yeh, K.C., To, K.Y., Sun, S.W., Wu, M.C., Lin, T.Y., and Chen, C.C. (1994). Curr. Genet. 26, 132-135.  81 
82  16S  96080.1  526    505  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) suppression of U505 effects; streptomycins. b Double mutant (C526A/G505U).  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   82 
83  16S  96080.1  526    505  HELIX-KNOT  134694532  C to G  E. coli  562  Lethal. b Double mutant (C526G/C525G)  Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1991) EMBO J. 10, 2203-2214.   83 
84  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to A  E. coli  562  Lethal, found in all ribosome fractions.  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  84 
85  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to C  E. coli  562  Lethal, found in all ribosome fractions.  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  85 
86  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Little or no effect on cell or inducible beta-galactosidase production. Mutant rRNA found significantly only in free 30S ribosomes. b  Santer, U. V., Tate, D., Canfield, S., Kansil, S., and Santer, M. (1993a). FASEB J. 7, A1093.  86 
87  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal, found in polysome. Double mutant (G527U/A149C)  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  87 
88  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Like G527U. Double mutant (G527U/A1492G).  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  88 
89  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal, found in polysome. Double mutant (G527U/A1492U).  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  89 
90  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Like G527U. Double mutant (G527U/A1493C).  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  90 
91  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal, found in polysome. Double mutant (G527U/A1493G).  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  91 
92  16S  96080.1  527  522  HELIX  134694604  G to U  E. coli  562  Like G527U. Double mutant (G527U/A1493U).  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  92 
93  16S  96080.1  528  521  HELIX  134694604  C to G  E. coli  562  Lethal when fully expressed.  Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  93 
94  16S  96080.1  529  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon.  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  94 
95  16S  96080.1  529  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Highly deleterious effect on cell growth; depression of inducible beta-galactosidase production. Leads to irreversible cessation of growth when incorporated into less than 25% of the polysome ribosomes. b  1) Santer, U. V., Tate, D., Canfield, S., Kansil, S., and Santer, M. (1993a). FASEB J. 7, A1093. 2) Santer, U.V., Cekleniak, J.A. and Santer, M. (1993b). Molecular Biology of the Cell 4, 420a.   95 
96  16S  96080.1  529  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal; severe reduction of translational accuracy. b  Santer, U.V., Cekleniak, J., Kansil, S., Santer, M., O'Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995a) RNA 1: 89-94.   96 
97  16S  96080.1  530  INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  E. coli  562  No increase in initiation from non-AUG codons. Double mutant (G530A/A531G).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  97 
98  16S  96080.1  530  INTERNAL  134698384  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Impaired interaction between ribosomes and ternary complex; EF-Tu-ribosome interaction a )ffected. c  1) Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1993). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 1364-1368. 2) Powers, T. and Noller, H.F. (1994) Trends in Genetics. 10, 27-31.   98 
99  16S  96080.1  530  INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal.b Impaired A-site function. c  Santer, M., Santer, U., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Cunningham, P., Zain, M., O'Connell, D.O., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 5539-5547.  99 
100  16S  96080.1  530    INTERNAL  134698384  G to U  E. coli  562  Showed a hyperractivity toward kethoxal and a strong reactivity toward CMCT; kethoxal reactivity disappears; reactivity of adjacent G529 disappears. c  Moine H, Nurse K, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, Ofengand J. 1997. Conformational Analysis of Escherichia coli 30S Ribosomes Containing the Single-Base Mutations G530U, U1498G, G1401C, and C1501G and the Double-Base Mutation G1401C/C1501G. Biochemistry 36: 137  100 
101  16S  96080.1  530    INTERNAL  134698384  loop  E. coli  562  Interacted unfavorably around the start codon and in the elongation region of the messengers. a  Mendoza L, Mondragon M, Lagunez-Otero J. 1998. Interaction of the 530 ribosomal site with regions of mRNA. BioSystems 46: 293-298.  101 
102  16S  96080.1  531    INTERNAL  134698384  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth or protein synthesis when incorporated into 50% or more of the ribosomes in the polysome fraction. b  Santer, M., Santer, U., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Cunningham, P., Zain, M., O'Connell, D.O., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 5539-5547.  102 
103  16S  96080.1  534    INTERNAL  134698384  U to G  E. coli  562  Little effect on cell growth or translational fidelity. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  103 
104  16S  96080.1  534    INTERNAL  134698384  U to C  E. coli  562  Little effect on cell growth or translational fidelity. b  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  104 
105  16S  96080.1  534    INTERNAL  134698384  U to G  E. coli  562  Increased level of translational errors. b Double mutant (U534G/G517U).  O'Connor, M., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1992). Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 4221-4227.  105 
106  16S  96080.1  538    513  HELIX  134694568  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   106 
107  16S  96080.1  571  865  HELIX-KNOT  134694676  U to A  E. coli  562  Impaired structural stability and function of 30S subunit. b, c  Vila, A., Viril-Farley, J. and Tapprich, W.E. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91, 11148-11152.   107 
108  16S  96080.1  571  865  HELIX-KNOT  134694676  U to A  E. coli  562  Restores both structure and function to wild-type. b, c Double mutant (U571A/A865U)  Vila, A., Viril-Farley, J. and Tapprich, W.E. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91, 11148-11152.   108 
109  16S  96080.1  595    BULGE  134698564  A to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding. c  Mougel, M. Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann,B. and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.   109 
110  16S  96080.1  595    BULGE  134698564  del A  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  110 
111  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G to A  E. coli  562  Slightly decreased affinity for S8 binding. Double mutant (G597A/C643U).  Moine, H., Cachia, C., Westhof, E., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1997). RNA 3,255-268.  111 
112  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G to C  E. coli  562  Suppression of effects of 643G on S8 binding. c Double mutant (G597C/C643G).  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  112 
113  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G597C/U641A/C643G  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding.   Moine, H., Cachia, C., Westhof, E., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1997). RNA 3,255-268.  113 
114  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G to U  E. coli  562  No binding of S8. Double mutant (G597U/C643G).  Moine, H., Cachia, C., Westhof, E., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1997). RNA 3,255-268.  114 
115  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G597U/U641A/C643G  E. coli  562  No binding of S8.  Moine, H., Cachia, C., Westhof, E., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1997). RNA 3,255-268.  115 
116  16S  96080.1  597    643  HELIX  134694892  G597U/U641C/C643G  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding.  Moine, H., Cachia, C., Westhof, E., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1997). RNA 3,255-268.  116 
117  16S  96080.1  598    640  HELIX  134694928  U to A  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  117 
118  16S  96080.1  598    640  HELIX  134694928  U to A  E. coli  562  Partial restoration of S8 binding, with 5-fold reduced binding strength. c Double mutant (U598A/A640U).  Allmang, C., Mougel, M., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1994) Nucleic Acids Research 22, 3708-3714.  118 
119  16S  96080.1  598    640  HELIX  134694928  U to A  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c Double mutant (U598A/A642U).  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  119 
120  16S  96080.1  599    639  HELIX  134694928  C to G  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Allmang, C., Mougel, M., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1994) Nucleic Acids Research 22, 3708-3714.  120 
121  16S  96080.1  599    639  HELIX  134694928  C to G  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c Double mutant (C599G/G639C).  Allmang, C., Mougel, M., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1994) Nucleic Acids Research 22, 3708-3714.  121 
122  16S  96080.1  618    HAIRPIN  134698636  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Gregory, R.J., Cahill, P.B.F., Thurlow, D.L., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). J. Mol. Biol. 204, 295-307.   122 
123  16S  96080.1  624    616  HELIX  134694964  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Gregory, R.J., Cahill, P.B.F., Thurlow, D.L., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). J. Mol. Biol. 204, 295-307.   123 
124  16S  96080.1  627    613  HELIX  134694964  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced S8 binding; decreased growth rate. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Gregory, R.J., Cahill, P.B.F., Thurlow, D.L., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). J. Mol. Biol. 204, 295-307.   124 
125  16S  96080.1  631    INTERNAL  134698600  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Gregory, R.J., Cahill, P.B.F., Thurlow, D.L., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). J. Mol. Biol. 204, 295-307.   125 
126  16S  96080.1  634    604  HELIX  134694928  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Gregory, R.J., Cahill, P.B.F., Thurlow, D.L., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). J. Mol. Biol. 204, 295-307.   126 
127  16S  96080.1  639    599  HELIX  134694928  G to C  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c Double mutant (G639C/C599G).  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  127 
128  16S  96080.1  640    598  HELIX  134694928  A to U  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  128 
129  16S  96080.1  640    598  HELIX  134694928  A to U  E. coli  562  Partial restoration of S8 binding, with 5-fold reduced binding strength. c Double mutant (A640U/U598A).  Allmang, C., Mougel, M., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1994) Nucleic Acids Research 22, 3708-3714.  129 
130  16S  96080.1  640    598  HELIX  134694928  del A  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  130 
131  16S  96080.1  641    BULGE  134698672  U to A  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  131 
132  16S  96080.1  641    BULGE  134698672  U to C  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  132 
133  16S  96080.1  642    BULGE  134698672  A to U  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Mougel, M. Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann,B. and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.   133 
134  16S  96080.1  642    BULGE  134698672  A to U  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c Double mutant (A642U/U598A).  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  134 
135  16S  96080.1  642    BULGE  134698672  del A  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate; drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Mougel, M. Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann,B. and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  135 
136  16S  96080.1  643    597  HELIX  134694892  C to G  E. coli  562  Drastic reduction in S8 binding. c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  136 
137  16S  96080.1  643    597  HELIX  134694892  C to U  E. coli  562  Reduced S8 binding; decreased growth rate. b,c  1) Gregory, R.J. and Zimmerman, R.A. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 5741-5776. 2) Mougel, M. Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann,B. and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  137 
138  16S  96080.1  643    597  HELIX  134694892  C to G  E. coli  562  Suppression of effects of 643G on S8 binding. c Double mutant (C643G/G597C).  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  138 
139  16S  96080.1  645    594  HELIX  134694856  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  139 
140  16S  96080.1  651    588  HELIX  134694856  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on S8 binding or cell growth. b,c  Mougel, M., Allmang, C., Eyermann, F., Cachia, C., Ehresmann, B., and Ehresmann, C. (1993). Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 787-792.  140 
141  16S  96080.1  653    MULTISTEM  134700652  del U  B. stearothermophilus  1422  No effect on B. stearothermophilus S15 binding.  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  141 
142  16S  96080.1  665    INTERNAL  134698708  A to C  B. stearothermophilus  1422  No effect on B. stearothermophilus S15 binding. Double mutant (A665C/A668C).  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  142 
143  16S  96080.1  726    731  HELIX  134695252  C to G  E. coli  562  Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. c  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  143 
144  16S  96080.1  726    731  HELIX  134695252  C to G  E. coli  562  Temperature-sensitive cell growth; decreased levels of S2 and S21 in 30S subunits; altered levels of normal proteins; novel proteins including heat-shock proteins. b  Prescott, C.D. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). EMBO J. 9, 289-294.  144 
145  16S  96080.1  732    725  HELIX  134695252  C to U  E. coli  562  Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. c  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  145 
146  16S  96080.1  740    666  HELIX  134695072  U to C  E. coli  562  Slight reduction in S15 binding.  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  146 
147  16S  96080.1  748    658  HELIX  134695000  del A  E. coli  562  30 fold reduction in S15 affinity.  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  147 
148  16S  96080.1  749    657  HELIX  134695000  C to A  E. coli  562  Little effect on S15 binding.  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  148 
149  16S  96080.1  752    MULTISTEM  134700652  G to C  E. coli  562  Severely reduced affinity for S15.  Batey, R.T., and Williamson, J.R. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 261, 550-567.  149 
150  23S  96092.1  754    743  HELIX  134726056  U to A  E. coli  562  Resistant to low concentrations of ketolide HMR3647; resistant to erythromycin b.  Xiong L, Shah S, Mauvais P, Mankin AS. 1999. A ketolide resistance mutation in domain II of 23S rRNA reveals the proximity of hairpin 35 to the peptidyl transferase center. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 633-639.  150 
151  23S  96092.1  754    743  HELIX  134726056  U to A  E. coli  562  Confers macrolide and ketolide resistance.  Hansen L.H., Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-ketolide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domain II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.  151 
152  23S  96092.1  754    743  HELIX  134726056  U to A  Escherichia coli  562  Ery-LR, Tel-LR  Xiong, L., S. Shah, P. Mauvais, and A. S. Mankin. 1999. A ketolide resistance mutation in domain II of 23S rRNA reveals the proximity of hairpin 35 to the peptidyl transferase centre. Mol. Microbiol. 31:633-639.  152 
153  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to C  E. coli  562  Produces ribosomes that are highly functional.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  153 
154  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to G  E. coli  562  Strongly inhibits ribosome fucntion.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  154 
155  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to U  E. coli  562  Moderately inhibits ribosome function.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  155 
156  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to C  E. coli  562  Moderately inhibits ribosome function. Double mutant (A787C/C795A).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  156 
157  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to C  E. coli  562  Strongly inhibits ribosome fucntion. Double mutant (A787C/C795G).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  157 
158  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to C  E. coli  562  Produces ribosomes that are highly functional. Double mutant (A787C/C795U).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  158 
159  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to G  E. coli  562  Moderately inhibits ribosome function. Double mutant (A787G/C795A).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  159 
160  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to G  E. coli  562  Moderately inhibits ribosome function. Double mutant (A787G/C795G).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  160 
161  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to G  E. coli  562  Produces ribosomes that are highly functional. Double mutant (A787G/C795U).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  161 
162  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to U  E. coli  562  Strongly inhibits ribosome fucntion. Double mutant (A787U/C795A).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  162 
163  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to U  E. coli  562  Strongly inhibits ribosome fucntion. Double mutant (A787U/C795G).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  163 
164  16S  96080.1  787    HAIRPIN  134699032  A to U  E. coli  562  Produces ribosome's that are highly functional. Double mutant (A787U/C795U).  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  164 
165  16S  96080.1  791    HAIRPIN  134699032  G to A  E. coli  562  Slower growth rate than G791A alone. Double mutant (G1505U/G791A).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  165 
166  16S  96080.1  792  HAIRPIN  134699032  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced association between 30S and 50S subunits; decreased IF3 binding and protein synthesis. b,c  Tapprich, W.E., Goss, D.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 4927-2931.  166 
167  16S  96080.1  792  HAIRPIN  134699032  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduced association between 30S and 50S subunits and reduced protein synthesis. [A792C associated with loss of IF3 binding]. b,c  Santer, M., Bennett-Guerrero, E., Byahatti, S., Czamecki, D., O'Connell, D., Meyer, M., Khoury, J., Cheng, X., Schwartz, I., and McLaughlin, J. (1990). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3700-3704.  167 
168  16S  96080.1  792  HAIRPIN  134699032  A to C  E. coli  562  Reduced association between 30S and 50S subunits and reduced protein synthesis. [A792C associated with loss of IF3 binding]. b,c  Santer, M., Bennett-Guerrero, E., Byahatti, S., Czamecki, D., O'Connell, D., Meyer, M., Khoury, J., Cheng, X., Schwartz, I., and McLaughlin, J. (1990). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3700-3704.  168 
169  16S  96080.1  792  HAIRPIN  134699032  A to U  E. coli  562  Reduced association between 30S and 50S subunits and reduced protein synthesis. [A792C associated with loss of IF3 binding]. b,c  Santer, M., Bennett-Guerrero, E., Byahatti, S., Czamecki, D., O'Connell, D., Meyer, M., Khoury, J., Cheng, X., Schwartz, I., and McLaughlin, J. (1990). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3700-3704.  169 
170  16S  96080.1  795    HAIRPIN  134699032  C to A  E. coli  562  Produces ribosomes that are highly functional.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  170 
171  16S  96080.1  795    HAIRPIN  134699032  C to G  E. coli  562  Moderately inhibits ribosome function.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  171 
172  16S  96080.1  795    HAIRPIN  134699032  C to U  E. coli  562  Produces ribosomes that are highly functional.  Lee, K., Varma, S., SantaLucia, J., and Cunningham, P.R. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 269, 732-743.  172 
173  16S  96080.1  814  MULTISTEM  134700616  A to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Growth rate and rate of protein synthesis decreased; recessive. b  McLaughlin, J., Reyes, B., Bennett-Guerrero, E., and Santer, M. (1988). J. Cell Biol. 107, 332a.  173 
174  16S  96080.1  814  MULTISTEM  134700616  A to G  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Growth rate and rate of protein synthesis decreased; recessive. b  McLaughlin, J., Reyes, B., Bennett-Guerrero, E., and Santer, M. (1988). J. Cell Biol. 107, 332a.  174 
175  16S  96080.1  814  MULTISTEM  134700616  A to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Growth rate and rate of protein synthesis decreased; recessive. b  McLaughlin, J., Reyes, B., Bennett-Guerrero, E., and Santer, M. (1988). J. Cell Biol. 107, 332a.  175 
176  16S  96080.1  865  571  HELIX-KNOT  134694676  A to U  E. coli  562  Impaired structural stability and function of 30S subunit. b,c  Vila, A., Viril-Farley, J. and Tapprich, W.E. (1994). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91,11148-11152.  176 
177  16S  96080.1  865  571  HELIX-KNOT  134694676  A to U  E. coli  562  Restores both structure and function to wild-type. b,c Double mutant (A865U/U571A).  Vila, A., Viril-Farley, J. and Tapprich, W.E. (1994). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91,11148-11152.  177 
178  16S  96080.1  885    912  HELIX  134695504  G to A  N. plumbaginifolia  4092    Novel mutation for streptomycin resistance. Creates a Styl recognition sequence. Affects binding of S12. In N. plumbaginifolia.  Yeh, K.C., To, K.Y., Sun, S.W., Wu, M.C., Lin, T.Y., and Chen, C.C. (1994). Curr. Genet. 26, 132-135.  178 
179  16S  96080.1  885  912  HELIX  134695504  G to C  E. coli  562  Interfere with 912*885 base pair and favored 912*888 conformation.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  179 
180  16S  96080.1  885  912  HELIX  134695504  G to U  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*885 conformation. Increases rates of readthrough errors and in-frame stop codons.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  180 
181  16S  96080.1  885  912  HELIX  134695504  G to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Lethal at high expression levels. b  Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10555.  181 
182  16S  96080.1  885  912  HELIX  134695504  G to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores normal growth and streptomycin sensitivity to G912 mutant. b Double mutant (G885C/C912G).  Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10555.  182 
183  16S  96080.1  885  912  HELIX  134695504  G to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Reduced growth rate; streptomycins. b Double mutant (G885U/C912G).  Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10555.  183 
184  16S  96080.1  888    INTERNAL  134699140  G to A  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Antisuppressor phenotype in Yeast. Increased base pairing in the 912*888 conformation.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  184 
185  16S  96080.1  888    INTERNAL  134699140  G to A  E. coli  562  Streptomycin. Double mutant (G888A/C912U).  Bonny, C., Montandon, P.-E., Marc-Martin, S., and Stutz, E. (1991). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1089, 213-219.  185 
186  16S  96080.1  910    887  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*888 conformation, but without cold-sensitivity. Lowers stop codon read-through rates, and elevated rate of frame-shifting.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  186 
187  16S  96080.1  910    887  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*885 conformation. increases rates of readthrough errors and in-frame stop codons. Double mutant (C910G/G887C).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  187 
188  16S  96080.1  911    886  HELIX  134695504  U to C  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*885 conformation. increases rates of readthrough errors and in-frame stop codons.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  188 
189  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to A  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth. b  Frattali, A.L., Flynn, M.K., De Stasio, E.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  189 
190  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Decreased cell growth rate; low level streptomycin.  Frattali, A.L., Flynn, M.K., De Stasio, E.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  190 
191  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*888 conformation, but without cold-sensitivity. Lowers stop codon read-through rates, and elevated rate of frame-shifting.  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  191 
192  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to U  N. plumbaginifolia  4092    High-level streptomycin resistance in N. plumbaginifolia.  Yeh, K.C., To, K.Y., Sun, S.W., Wu, M.C., Lin, T.Y., and Chen, C.C. (1994). Curr. Genet. 26, 132-135.  192 
193  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to U  E. coli  562  Streptomycin. b  Montandon, P.E., Wagner, R., and Stutz,E. (1986). EMBO J. 5, 3705-3708.   193 
194  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores normal growth and streptomycin sensitivity to G912 mutant. b Double mutant (C912G/G885C).  Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10555.   194 
195  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*885 conformation. Increases rates of readthrough errors and in-frame stop codons. Double mutant (C912G/G885C).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  195 
196  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*885 conformation. Increases rates of readthrough errors and in-frame stop codons. Double mutant (C912G/G885C).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  196 
197  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  (With U1192)Reduced growth rate; streptomycins. b Double mutant (C912G/G885U).  Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10555.  197 
198  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Allowed base pairing at 912*885 but interfered with 912*888 base pairing. Double mutant (C912G/G885U).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  198 
199  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored the 912*888 conformation and cold sensitivity, but does not increase reactivity to kethoxal. Double mutant (C912G/G888C).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  199 
200  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to G  E. coli  562  Favored 912*888 conformation but cold-sensitive. Double mutant (C912G/G888U).  Lodmell, J.S. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Science. 277, 1262-1267.  200 
201  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  C to U  E. coli  562  Streptomycin. Double mutant (C912U/G888A).  Bonny, C., Montandon, P.-E., Marc-Martin, S., and Stutz, E. (1991). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1089, 213-219.  201 
202  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  U to C  S. cerevisiae  4932    Decreases resistance to streptomycin and increases resistance to paromomycin and inhibits nonsense suppression induced by paromomycin in S. cerevisrae.  Chernoff, U.O., Vincent, A., and Liebman, A.W. (1994). Embo J. 13, 96-913.  202 
203  16S  96080.1  912    885  HELIX  134695504  del C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b  Frattali, A.L., Flynn, M.K., De Stasio, E.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  203 
204  16S  96080.1  913    MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  E. coli  562  Binding of streptomycin decreased; both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin-induced inhibition of protein synthesis decreased. c  Leclerc, D., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras (1991a). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 3973-3977.  204 
205  16S  96080.1  913    MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  N. plumbaginifolia  4092    Moderate effect of streptomycin binding in N. plumbaginifolia.  Yeh, K.C., To, K.Y., Sun, S.W., Wu, M.C., Lin, T.Y., and Chen, C.C. (1994). Curr. Genet. 26, 132-135.  205 
206  16S  96080.1  914    MULTISTEM  134701048  A to C  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  High level streptomycin resistance in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  206 
207  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to C  E. coli  562  Streptomycin.  Bonny, C., Montandon, P.-E., Marc-Martin, S., and Stutz, E. (1991). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1089, 213-219.  207 
208  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to U  E. coli  562  Impaired growth.  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.   208 
209  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  E. coli  562  No suppression of U13 effects. c Double mutant (A914G/U13A).  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.   209 
210  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to U  E. coli  562  No suppression of U13 effects. c Double mutant (A914U/U13C).  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.   210 
211  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduction of both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin binding. c  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.   211 
212  16S  96080.1  914  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to U  E. coli  562  Reduction of both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin binding. c  Pinard, R., Payant, C., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1993). FASEB J. 7, 173-176.  212 
213  16S  96080.1  915    MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  N. plumbaginifolia  4092    Increased streptomycin binding in N. plumbaginifolia.  Yeh, K.C., To, K.Y., Sun, S.W., Wu, M.C., Lin, T.Y., and Chen, C.C. (1994). Curr. Genet. 26, 132-135.  213 
214  16S  96080.1  915    MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Intermediate level streptomycin resistance in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  214 
215  16S  96080.1  915  MULTISTEM  134701048  A to G  E. coli  562  Binding of streptomycin decreased; both streptomycin-induced misreading and streptomycin-induced inhibition of protein synthesis decreased. c  Leclerc, D., Melancon, P., and Brakier-Gingras (1991a). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 3973-3977.  215 
216  16S  96080.1  916    19  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  U to G  E. coli  562  20% decrease in translation efficiency. b  Poot R.A., van den Worm S.H.E, leij C.W.A, van Djuin J. 1998. Base complementarity in helix 2 of the central psuedoknot in 16S rRNA is essential for ribosome functioning. Nucleic Acids Research 26 (2): 549-553.  216 
217  16S  96080.1  917    18  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  G to A  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (G917A/C18U).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.  217 
218  16S  96080.1  917    18  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  G to C  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (G917C/C18G).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.   218 
219  16S  96080.1  917    18  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  G to U  E. coli  562  Translational activity restored. b Double mutant (G917U/C18A).  Brink, M.F., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1993b). The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. pp. 371-374. Plenum Press, New York.   219 
220  16S  96080.1  918    17  HELIX-KNOT  134693056  A to G  E. coli  562  Increased stability of helix 2; 30% decrease in activity. b  Poot R.A., van den Worm S.H.E, leij C.W.A, van Djuin J. 1998. Base complementarity in helix 2 of the central psuedoknot in 16S rRNA is essential for ribosome functioning. Nucleic Acids Research 26 (2): 549-553.  220 
221  16S  96080.1  920  FREE  134701156  del U  E. coli  562  Severe reduction in rRNA binding.  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  221 
222  16S  96080.1  921  1396  HELIX  134695576  U to G  E. coli  562  Severe reduction in tRNA binding. c Double mutant (U921G/G922U).  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  222 
223  16S  96080.1  922  1395  HELIX  134695576  G to U  E. coli  562  Severe reduction in tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  223 
224  16S  96080.1  922  1395  HELIX  134695576  G to U  E. coli  562  Severe reduction in tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G922U/U912G).  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  224 
225  16S  96080.1  926  BULGE  134699212  del G  E. coli  562  Moderate reduction in tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  225 
226  16S  96080.1  966    HAIRPIN  134699284  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  226 
227  16S  96080.1  966    HAIRPIN  134699284  G to C  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  227 
228  16S  96080.1  966    HAIRPIN  134699284  G to U  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  228 
229  16S  96080.1  967    HAIRPIN  134699284  C to G  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  229 
230  16S  96080.1  967    HAIRPIN  134699284  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  230 
231  16S  96080.1  967    HAIRPIN  134699284  C to A  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  231 
232  16S  96080.1  967    HAIRPIN  134699284  del C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  232 
233  16S  96080.1  980    MULTISTEM  134700832  C to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) A 980 has only a small effect on growth; G980 decreases growth rate dramatically in the presence of Spc.  Santer, U.V., Dahlberg, A.E., and Santer, M. (1991). J. Cell Biol. 115, 72a.  233 
234  16S  96080.1  980    MULTISTEM  134700832  C to G  E. coli  562  (With U1192) A 980 has only a small effect on growth; G980 decreases growth rate dramatically in the presence of Spc.  Santer, U.V., Dahlberg, A.E., and Santer, M. (1991). J. Cell Biol. 115, 72a.  234 
235  16S  96080.1  981  MULTISTEM  134700832  U to G  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter; partially excluded from polysomes. b  Santer, U.V., Wineburg, S., Giza, E., D'Amco, R., Bromley, S., Santer, M. (1995b). Abstract 54. Frontiers in Translation, in press.  235 
236  16S  96080.1  981  MULTISTEM  134700832  U to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter; partially excluded from polysomes. b  Santer, U.V., Wineburg, S., Giza, E., D'Amco, R., Bromley, S., Santer, M. (1995b). Abstract 54. Frontiers in Translation, in press.  236 
237  16S  96080.1  981  MULTISTEM  134700832  U to C  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Recessive lethal; Spcs. b  Santer, U.V., Wineburg, S., Giza, E., D'Amco, R., Bromley, S., Santer, M. (1995b). Abstract 54. Frontiers in Translation, in press.  237 
238  23S  96092.1  1005    1138  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to G  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) Eryr. a Double mutant(C1005G/G1138C).  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  238 
239  23S  96092.1  1005    1138  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to G  E. coli  562  Slow growth under natural promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) severe growth retardation. a  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  239 
240  23S  96092.1  1005    1138  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to G  E. coli  562  Slow growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) Erys. a Double mutant (C1005G/C1006U)  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  240 
241  23S  96092.1  1006    1137  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to U  E. coli  562  Slow growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) Erys. a Double mutant (C1005G/C1006U)  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  241 
242  23S  96092.1  1006    1137  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to U  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter; under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythormycin) Erys. a  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  242 
243  23S  96092.1  1006    1137  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  C to U  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin)Eryr. a Double mutant (C1006U/G1137A)  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  243 
244  16S  96080.1  1054    BULGE  134699464  C to A  E. coli  562  Defective in the catalysis of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis in the presence of RF2. c  Arkov A.L., Freistroffer D.V., Ehrenberg M, Murgola E.J. 1998. Mutations in RNAs of both ribosomal subunits cause defects in translation termination. The EMBO Journal 17 (5): 1507-1514.  244 
245  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal above 37 [ring] or high expression. UGA suppression.  Pagel, F.T., Zhao, S.Q., Hijazi, K.A., and Murgola, E.J. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 267, 1113-1123.  245 
246  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to A  E. coli  562  Nonsense suppressors. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  246 
247  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to A  E. coli  562  Only C1054G resulted in significant reduction of both cellular growth rate and ability of ribosomes to stop specifically at UGA. b  Hanfler, A., Kleuvers, B., and Goringer, H.U. (1990). Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 5625-5632.  247 
248  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to G  E. coli  562  Slight defect in subunit association. Suppresses all three termination codons.  Pagel, F.T., Zhao, S.Q., Hijazi, K.A., and Murgola, E.J. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 267, 1113-1123.  248 
249  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to U  E. coli  562  Temperature sensitive lethality; slow growth rate at 37 [[ring]]C and when highly expressed. Defective ability to enter polysome.  Pagel, F.T., Zhao, S.Q., Hijazi, K.A., and Murgola, E.J. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 267, 1113-1123.  249 
250  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  del C  E. coli  562  No effect on translational fidelity. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  250 
251  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  del C  E. coli  562  Lethal at 31 [[ring]], No suppression of trpA nonsense mutation. Affects 30S subunit assembly and subunit association.  Pagel, F.T., Zhao, S.Q., Hijazi, K.A., and Murgola, E.J. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 267, 1113-1123.  251 
252  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  del C  E. coli  562  UGA suppression. b  Murgola, E.J., Hijazi, K.A., Goringer, H.U., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1988). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4162-4165.   252 
253  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to G  E. coli  562  Nonsense suppressors. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  253 
254  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to G  E. coli  562  Only C1054G resulted in significant reduction of both cellular growth rate and ability of ribosomes to stop specifically at UGA. b  Hanfler, A., Kleuvers, B., and Goringer, H.U. (1990). Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 5625-5632.  254 
255  16S  96080.1  1054  BULGE  134699464  C to U  E. coli  562  Only C1054G resulted in significant reduction of both cellular growth rate and ability of ribosomes to stop specifically at UGA. b  Hanfler, A., Kleuvers, B., and Goringer, H.U. (1990). Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 5625-5632.  255 
256  23S  96092.1  1056    MULTISTEM  134737900  G1056A/U1028C/A1086G  E. coli  562  Decreases stability of tertiary structure b.  Draper D. E. 1998. Protein-RNA Recognition in a Highly Conserved Ribosomal Domain Targeted by Thiazole Antibiotics. The Many Faces of RNA. 113-125.  256 
257  23S  96092.1  1056    MULTISTEM  134737900  G to A  E. coli  562  Binding of both L11 and thiostrepton is weakened in RNA fragments. b  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  257 
258  23S  96092.1  1056    MULTISTEM  134737900  G to A  E. coli  562  Stoichiometric L11 binding.b (with 2058G and erythromycin) Reduced growth rate. a  1) Douthwaite, S.and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731. 2) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  258 
259  23S  96092.1  1056    MULTISTEM  134737900  G to C  E. coli  562  Binding of thiostrepton is weakened in RNA fragments. b  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  259 
260  16S  96080.1  1057  1203  HELIX  134696116  G to C  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (G1057C/G1058U).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  260 
261  16S  96080.1  1058  1199  HELIX  134696152  G to U  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (G1058U/G1057C)  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  261 
262  16S  96080.1  1058    1199  HELIX  134696152  G to C  E. coli  562  Causes more resistance to tetracycline in gram-positive bacteria.  Ross J.I., Eady E.A., Cove J.H., Cunliffe W.J. 1998. 16S rRNA Mutation Associated with Tetracycline Resistance in a Gram-Positive Bacterium. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 42 (7): 1702-1705.  262 
263  23S  96092.1  1061    INTERNAL  134733868  U to G  E. coli  562  Restores tertiary structure b.  Draper D.E. 1998. Protein-RNA recognition in a highly conserved ribosomal domain targeted by thiazole antibiotics. The many faces of RNA. 113-125.  263 
264  23S  96092.1  1061    INTERNAL  134733868  U to A  E. coli  562  Increases stability of tertiary structure; increase temperature at which secondary stucture unfolds b.  Draper D.E. 1998. Protein-RNA recognition in a highly conserved ribosomal domain targeted by thiazole antibiotics. The many faces of RNA. 113-125.  264 
265  23S  96092.1  1062    1076  HELIX  134727028  G to A  E. coli  562  Much reduced L11 binding. b (with 2058G and erythromycin)  1) Douthwaite, S.and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731. 2) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  265 
266  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to A  Nicotiana  4085  High level stectinomycin resistance in Nicotiana chloroplast.  Fromm, H., Edelman, M., Aviv, D. and Galun, E. (1987). EMBO J. 6, 3233-3237.  266 
267  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to A  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  267 
268  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to A  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (G1064A/C1192U).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  268 
269  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to C  E. coli  562  Spcr; 5-fold lower translational activity. b,c Double mutant (G1064C/C1192G).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  269 
270  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to U  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (G1064U/C1192A).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  270 
271  23S  96092.1  1064    1074  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  Stoichiometric L11 binding. b (with 2058G and erythromycin) Reduced growth rate. a  1) Douthwaite, S.and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731. 2) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  271 
272  23S  96092.1  1064    1074  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  Normal in vivo assembly of L11 into ribosomes. a Double mutant (C1064U/C1075U).  1) Douthwaite, S.and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731. 2) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  272 
273  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to U  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (C1192A/G1064U).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  273 
274  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to C  E. coli  562  Spcr; 5-fold lower translational activity. b,c Double mutant (C1192G/G1064C).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  274 
275  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to A  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (C1192U/G1064A).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  275 
276  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to C  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  276 
277  16S  96080.1  1064    1192  HELIX  134696188  G to U  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  277 
278  23S  96092.1  1065    HAIRPIN  134733904  U1065A/A1073C  E. coli  562  Dramatic effect on RNA folding in context of (CG)C triple b.  Conn G.L., Gutell R.R., Draper D.E. 1998. A functional ribosomal RNA tertiary structure involves a base triple interaction. Biochemistry 37: 11980-11988.  278 
279  16S  96080.1  1065    MULTISTEM  134700940  U to C  E. coli  562  Inhibits translation, increased level of acetylation, and does not allow S5 to bind. Causes an accumulation of free 30S subunits. Double mutant (U1065C/A1191G).  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc. H.P. and Garrett,R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486.  279 
280  16S  96080.1  1066    MULTISTEM  134700940  C to U  E. coli  562  Spcr; increased sensitivity to fusidic acid. b Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. c  Johanson, U. and Hughes, D. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 464-466.   280 
281  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to U  E. coli  562  Normal growth  1) Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996). J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2) Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996). J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  281 
282  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to G  E. coli  562  Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. b  Brown, S. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 79-90.  282 
283  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to G  Halobacterium  2243  Thiostrepton resistance in Halobacterium sp.  Hummel, H., and A. Böck. (1987) Biochimie 69:857-861.  283 
284  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to U  Halobacterium  2243  Thiostrepton resistance in Halobacterium sp.  Hummel, H., and A. Böck. (1987) Biochimie 69:857-861.  284 
285  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to U  E. coli  562  Increased readthrough at UAG. Suppressed by combination with G2538A, C or U.  Saarma, U., Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Nigul, S. and Remme, J. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 163  285 
286  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to U  E. coli  562  A to C or U confers high level resistance to thiostrepton, whereas A to G confers intermediate level resistance; drug binding affinity is reduced similarly. a, b Expression by host RNA polymerase results in formation of active ribosomal subunits in vivo.   1) Thompson, J. and Cundliffe, E. (1991) Biochimie 73: 1131-1135. 2) Thompson, J., Cundliffe, E. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1988) J. Mol. Biol. 203: 457-465. 3) Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Remme, J. and Nierhaus, K.H. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 231, 581-593. 4) LAST   286 
287  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to C  E. coli  562  A to C or U confers high level resistance to thiostrepton, whereas A to G confers intermediate level resistance; drug binding affinity is reduced similarly. a, b Expression by host RNA polymerase results in formation of active ribosomal subunits in vivo.   1) Thompson, J. and Cundliffe, E. (1991) Biochimie 73: 1131-1135. 2) Thompson, J., Cundliffe, E. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1988) J. Mol. Biol. 203: 457-465. 3) Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Remme, J. and Nierhaus, K.H. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 231, 581-593. 4) LAST   287 
288  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to G  E. coli  562  A to C or U confers high level resistance to thiostrepton, whereas A to G confers intermediate level resistance; drug binding affinity is reduced similarly. a, b Expression by host RNA polymerase results in formation of active ribosomal subunits in vivo.   1) Thompson, J. and Cundliffe, E. (1991) Biochimie 73: 1131-1135. 2) Thompson, J., Cundliffe, E. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1988) J. Mol. Biol. 203: 457-465. 3) Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Remme, J. and Nierhaus, K.H. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 231, 581-593. 4) LAST   288 
289  23S  96092.1  1067    HAIRPIN  134733904  A to U  E. coli  562  Constituted 30% of the total 23S rRNA pool in the ribosomes; exhibited 30% thiostrepton resistance in poly (U) translation b.  Liiv A, Remme J. 1998. Base-pairing of 23S rRNA ends is essential for ribosomal large subunit assembly. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 965-975.  289 
290  23S  96092.1  1068    HAIRPIN  134733904  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b (with 2058G) Lethal when expressed from rrnB or pL promotor in presence of erythromycin. a  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Douthwaite, S.and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731.  290 
291  23S  96092.1  1068    HAIRPIN  134733904  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of 1068A; lethality only in absence of erythromycin. a Double mutant (G1068A/G1099A)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  291 
292  23S  96092.1  1071    HAIRPIN  134733904  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of temperature sensitivity of 1071A.a; reduced L11 binding.b  1)Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2)Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In K.H.Nierhaus, F.Franceschi, A.R Subramania, Erdmann, V.A and B.Wittmann Liebold (ed.) The Translation Appara  292 
293  23S  96092.1  1071    HAIRPIN  134733904  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of temperature sensitivity of 1071A. a Double mutant (G1071A/G1106A)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  293 
294  23S  96092.1  1072    HAIRPIN  134733904  C to U  E. coli  562  Lethal when expressed from rrnB or pL promotor in presence of erythromycin. a  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  294 
295  23S  96092.1  1072    HAIRPIN  134733904  C to U  E. coli  562  Tertiary structure of the RNA is eliminated; binding of L11 and thiostrepton are reduced by 10 fold b.  Conn G.L., Gutell R.R., Draper D.E. 1998. A functional ribosomal RNA tertiary structure involves a base triple interaction. Biochemistry 37: 11980-11988.  295 
296  23S  96092.1  1075    1063  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on L11 binding. b  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  296 
297  23S  96092.1  1075    1063  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  Normal in vivo assembly of L11 into ribosomes. a Double mutant (C1075U/C1064U)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  297 
298  23S  96092.1  1075    1063  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  Normal in vivo assembly of L11 into ribosomes. a Double mutant (C1064U/C1075U).  1) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In K.H.Nierhaus, F.Franceschi, A.R Subramania, Erdmann, V.A and B.Wittmann Liebold (ed.) The Translation Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. Plenum Press, New York,  298 
299  23S  96092.1  1076    1062  HELIX  134727028  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on L11 binding. b  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  299 
300  23S  96092.1  1079    1059  HELIX  134726992  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on L11 binding. b  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  300 
301  23S  96092.1  1082    1086  HELIX  134727064  U to C  E. coli  562  Binding of both L11 and thiostrepton is weakened in RNA fragments. b  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  301 
302  23S  96092.1  1082    1086  HELIX  134727064  U to A  E. coli  562  Both L11 and thiostrepton bind RNA fragments with about wild-type affinity. b Double mutant(U1082A/A1086U)  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  302 
303  23S  96092.1  1082    1086  HELIX  134727064  U to C  E. coli  562  Both L11 and thiostrepton bind RNA fragments with about wild-type affinity. b Double mutant(U1082C/A1086G)  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  303 
304  23S  96092.1  1084    HAIRPIN  134733940  A to U  E. coli  562  Destabilizes the tertiary structure b.  Draper DE. 1998. Protein-RNA Recognition in a Highly Conserved Ribosomal Domain Targeted by Thiazole Antibiotics. The Many Faces of RNA. 113-125.  304 
305  23S  96092.1  1085    HAIRPIN  134733940  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b   Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. Pl  305 
306  23S  96092.1  1085    HAIRPIN  134733940  A to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b   Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. Pl  306 
307  23S  96092.1  1085    HAIRPIN  134733940  A to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b   Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. Pl  307 
308  23S  96092.1  1086    1082  HELIX  134727064  A to G  E. coli  562  Both L11 and thiostrepton fragments with about wild-type affinity.b Double mutant (A1086U/U1082A)  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  308 
309  23S  96092.1  1086    1082  HELIX  134727064  A to G  E. coli  562  Both L11 and thiostrepton fragments with about wild-type affinity. b Double mutant (A1086G/U1082C)  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  309 
310  23S  96092.1  1086    1082  HELIX  134727064  A to G  E. coli  562  Binding of both L11 and thiostrepto is weakened in RNA fragments. b  Ryan, P.C. and Draper, D.E. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 6308-6312.  310 
311  23S  96092.1  1087    1102  HELIX  134727100  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b  Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. Pl  311 
312  23S  96092.1  1091    1100  HELIX  134727136  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b  Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp.   312 
313  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C to U  E. coli  562  (With 2058G) Temperature sensitivity. a   Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  313 
314  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C to U  E. coli  562  Partial suppression of 1092U temperature sensitivity. a Double mutant (C1092U/C1109U)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  314 
315  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C to U  E. coli  562  Suppression of 1092U temperature sensitivity. a Double mutant (C1092U/G1099A)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  315 
316  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C1092U/G1099A  E. coli  562  Dramatically alters the pH dependence of tertiary folding. b  Conn GL, Gutell RR, Draper DE. 1998. A Functional Ribosomal RNA Tertiary Structure Involves a Base Triple Interaction. Biochemistry 37: 11980-11988.  316 
317  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C1092G/G1099A/C1072U  E. coli  562  Restores the tertiary structre of the RNA; shows significant sensitivity of solution pH. b  Conn GL, Gutell RR, Draper DE. 1998. A Functional Ribosomal RNA Tertiary Structure Involves a Base Triple Interaction. Biochemistry 37: 11980-11988.  317 
318  23S  96092.1  1092    1099  HELIX  134727136  C1092G/G1099C  E. coli  562  Unusual melting profile and no clear tertiary structure transition at higher pH in the context of both (CG)C and (GC)U RNAs. b  Conn GL, Gutell RR, Draper DE. 1998. A Functional Ribosomal RNA Tertiary Structure Involves a Base Triple Interaction. Biochemistry 37: 11980-11988.  318 
319  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to A  E. coli  562  Defective in the catalysis of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis in the presence of RF2. c  Arkov AL, Freistroffer DV, Ehrenberg M, Murgola EJ. 1998. Mutations in RNAs of both ribosomal subunits cause defects in translation termination. The EMBO Journal 17(5): 1507-1514.  319 
320  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  del G  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding; trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive.  1) Douthwaite et al.,FIX 1993; 2) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 3) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.  320 
321  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding; trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive.  1) Douthwaite et al.,FIX 1993; 2) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 3) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.  321 
322  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to A  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  322 
323  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to C  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  323 
324  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to U  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  324 
325  23S  96092.1  1093    HAIRPIN  134734012  G to A  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive Double mutant(G1093A/A1098G)  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  325 
326  23S  96092.1  1094    HAIRPIN  134734012  U to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding; trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive.  1) Douthwaite et al.,FIX 1993; 2) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 3) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.  326 
327  23S  96092.1  1095    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to U  E. coli  562  Reduced thiostrepton and micrococcin binding.  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 357-363.  327 
328  23S  96092.1  1095    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to C  E. coli  562  Reduced thiostrepton and micrococcin binding.  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 357-363.  328 
329  23S  96092.1  1095    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduced thiostrepton and micrococcin binding.  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 357-363.  329 
330  23S  96092.1  1095    HAIRPIN  134734012  del A  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor  1) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 2) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.  330 
331  23S  96092.1  1096    HAIRPIN  134734012  del A  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor  1) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 2) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.  331 
332  23S  96092.1  1097    HAIRPIN  134734012  del U  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor  1) Jemiolo, D.K., Pagel, F.T. and Murgola, E.J. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92, 12309-12313. 2) Murgola, E. J., Pagel, F.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology, 73, 925-931.   332 
333  23S  96092.1  1098    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to U  E. coli  562  Normal growth phenotype  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  333 
334  23S  96092.1  1098    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to C  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  334 
335  23S  96092.1  1098    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to G  E. coli  562  Normal growth phenotype  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  335 
336  23S  96092.1  1098    HAIRPIN  134734012  A to G  E. coli  562  trpA UGA suppressor; temperature sensitive Double mutant (A1098G/G1093A)  Xu, W. and Murgola, E.J. (1996). J. Mol. Biol. 264: 407-411.  336 
337  23S  96092.1  1099    1092  HELIX  134727136  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding.  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H.Nierhaus, F. Franceschi,  337 
338  23S  96092.1  1099    1092  HELIX  134727136  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of 1092U temperature sensitivity. a Double mutant (G1099A/C1092U)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  338 
339  23S  96092.1  1099    1092  HELIX  134727136  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of 1068A lethality, but only in absence of erythromycin. Double mutant (G1099A/G1068A)   Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  339 
340  23S  96092.1  1100    1091  HELIX  134727136  C to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding.  1) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H.Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. ubramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. P  340 
341  23S  96092.1  1102    1087  HELIX  134727100  C to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding.  1) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H.Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. ubramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. P  341 
342  23S  96092.1  1104    1055  HELIX  134726956  C to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding.  1) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H.Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. ubramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. P  342 
343  23S  96092.1  1106    1053  HELIX  134726956  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L11 binding. b; Suppression of G1071A temperature sensitivity. Double mutant (G1106A/G1071A)  1) Douthwaite, S., Vester, B., Aagaard, C., and Rosendahl, G. (1993) In The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution. ( K.H.Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. ubramanian, Erdmann, V.A. and B. Wittmann-Liebold, ed.), pp. 339-346. P  343 
344  23S  96092.1  1109    INTERNAL  134733832  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on L11 binding.  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  344 
345  23S  96092.1  1109    INTERNAL  134733832  C to U  E. coli  562  Partial suppression of temperature sensitivity. Double mutant (C1109U/C1092U)  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  345 
346  23S  96092.1  1115    1040  HELIX  134726920  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on L11 binding.  Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403.  346 
347  23S  96092.1  1137    1006  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to A  E. coli  562  With 2058G and erythromycin, lethal when expressed from rrnB promoter.   Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  347 
348  23S  96092.1  1137    1006  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to A  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promotor; (With 2058G and erythromycin) Eryr. Double mutant (G1137A/C1006U)  Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  348 
349  23S  96092.1  1137    1006  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to A  E. coli  562  With 2058G and erythromycin, lethal when expressed from rrnB promoter. Double mutant (G1137A/G1138C)  Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  349 
350  23S  96092.1  1137    1006  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to A  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) Eryr. a Double mutant (G1137A/C1006U)  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  350 
351  23S  96092.1  1138    1005  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to C  E. coli  562  WIth 2058G and erythromycin, lethal when expressed from rrnB promoter. Double mutant (G1138C/G1137A)   Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  351 
352  23S  96092.1  1138    1005  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to C  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promoter; (with 2058G and erythromycin) Eryr. a Double mutant(G1138C/C1005G).  1) Rosendahl, G. and Douthwaite, S. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2) Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  352 
353  23S  96092.1  1138    1005  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to C  E. coli  562  With 2058G and erythromycin, lethal when expressed from rrnB promoter.   Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  353 
354  23S  96092.1  1138    1005  HELIX-KNOT  134726776  G to C  E. coli  562  Restores normal growth under pL promotor; (With 2058G and erythromycin) Eryr. Double mutant (G1138C/C1005G)  Rosendahl, G., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 59-68.  354 
355  16S  96080.1  1191    MULTISTEM  134700940  A to C  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  High level spectinomycin resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  355 
356  16S  96080.1  1191    MULTISTEM  134700940  A to G  E. coli  562  Inhibits translation, increased level of acetylation, and does not allow S5 to bind. Causes an accumulation of free 30S subunits. Double mutant (U1065C/A1191G).  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc. H.P. and Garrett,R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486.  356 
357  16S  96080.1  1191    MULTISTEM  134700940  A to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  High level spectinomycin resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  357 
358  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to A  E. coli  562  Spectinomycin. b  1) Sigmund, C.D., Ettayebi, M., and Morgan, E.A. (1984). Nucleic Acids. Res. 12, 4653-4663. 2) Makosky, P.C. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1987). Biochimie 69, 885-889. 3) Bilgin, N., Richter, A.A., Ehrenberg, M., Dahlberg, A.E., and Kurland, C.G. (1990). EMBO J.   358 
359  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Gain resistance to spectinomycin and macrolides in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  Sander, P., Prammananan, T. and Bottger, E.C. (1995) Mol. Microbiol. 22, 841-848.  359 
360  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate. Double mutant (U1341C/C1192U).  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  360 
361  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to U  E. coli  562  Counteracts mutation C1192 and restores spectinomycin binding. No cell growth. Double mutant (A1351C/C1192U).  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  361 
362  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to A  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (C1192A/G1064U).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  362 
363  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to G  E. coli  562  Spcr; 5-fold lower translational activity. b,c Double mutant (C1192G/G1064C).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  363 
364  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to U  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (C1192U/G1064A).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  364 
365  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to G  E. coli  562  Spectinomycin. b  1) Sigmund, C.D., Ettayebi, M., and Morgan, E.A. (1984). Nucleic Acids. Res. 12, 4653-4663. 2) Makosky, P.C. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1987). Biochimie 69, 885-889. 3) Bilgin, N., Richter, A.A., Ehrenberg, M., Dahlberg, A.E., and Kurland, C.G. (1990). EMBO J.   365 
366  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to U  E. coli  562  Spectinomycin. b  1) Sigmund, C.D., Ettayebi, M., and Morgan, E.A. (1984). Nucleic Acids. Res. 12, 4653-4663. 2) Makosky, P.C. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1987). Biochimie 69, 885-889. 3) Bilgin, N., Richter, A.A., Ehrenberg, M., Dahlberg, A.E., and Kurland, C.G. (1990). EMBO J.   366 
367  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to U  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (G1064A/C1192U).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  367 
368  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to G  E. coli  562  Spcr; 5-fold lower translational activity. b,c Double mutant (G1064C/C1192G).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  368 
369  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to A  E. coli  562  Spcr.b,c Double mutant (G1064U/C1192A).  Brink, M.F., Brink, G., Verbeet, M. Ph., and deBoer, H.A. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research 22, 325-331.  369 
370  16S  96080.1  1192    1064  HELIX  134696188  C to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Spectinomycin resistant. b  Sander, P. Pramananan T, Meier A, Frischkorn K, Bottger E.C. 1997. The role of ribosomal RNAs in macrolide resistance. Molecular Biology 26 (3): 469-480.  370 
371  16S  96080.1  1193    1063  HELIX  134696188  G to A  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055  Low level spectinomycin resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  371 
372  16S  96080.1  1193    1063  HELIX  134696188  G to A  Nicotiana  4085  Low level spectinomycin resistance in Nicotiana chloroplast.  Fromm, H., Edelman, M., Aviv, D. and Galun, E. (1987). EMBO J. 6, 3233-3237.  372 
373  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased UGA read-through. b  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  373 
374  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Double mutant (U1199C/U1202C).  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  374 
375  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199C/C1200U).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  375 
376  16S  96080.1  1199    1058  HELIX  134696152  U to G  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (C1200G/U1199G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  376 
377  16S  96080.1  1199    1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (C1200U/U1199C).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  377 
378  16S  96080.1  1199    1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Double mutant (U1202C/U1199C).  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  378 
379  16S  96080.1  1199    1058  HELIX  134696152  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (C1203G/U1199G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  379 
380  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to C  E. coli  562  Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Double mutant (U1199C/C1200U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  380 
381  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to G  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199G/C1200G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  381 
382  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to G  E. coli  562  Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Double mutant (U1199G/C1200G).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  382 
383  16S  96080.1  1199  1058  HELIX  134696152  U to G  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199G/C1203G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  383 
384  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate; effect on translational fidelity. b,c  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  384 
385  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to U  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199C/C1200U).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  385 
386  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to U  E. coli  562  Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Double mutant (U1199C/C1200U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  386 
387  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to G  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199G/C1200G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  387 
388  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to G  E. coli  562  Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Double mutant (U1199G/C1200G).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  388 
389  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to G  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (C1200G/U1199G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  389 
390  16S  96080.1  1200    BULGE  134699752  C to U  E. coli  562  Severe effects on growth rate, mutant ribosome incorporation into polysomes and translational fidelity. b,c Double mutant (C1200U/U1199C).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  390 
391  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased UGA read-through. b  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  391 
392  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Double mutant (U1202C/U1199C).  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  392 
393  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (U1202G/C1203G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  393 
394  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (U1202C/C1203U).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  394 
395  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Double mutant (U1199C/U1202C).  Goringer, H.U., Hijazi, K.A., Murgola, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6603-6607.  395 
396  16S  96080.1  1202    BULGE  134699752  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (C1203G/U1202G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  396 
397  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (U1202G/C1203G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  397 
398  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (U1202C/C1203U).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  398 
399  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to G  E. coli  562  Severely retarded growth rate. b,c Double mutant (U1199G/C1203G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  399 
400  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  400 
401  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (C1203G/U1199G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  401 
402  16S  96080.1  1203    1057  HELIX  134696116  C to G  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational accuracy. b,c Double mutant (C1203G/U1202G).  Moine, H. and Dahlberg, A. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 243, 402-412.  402 
403  23S  96092.1  1206    1240  HELIX  134727280  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  403 
404  23S  96092.1  1206    1240  HELIX  134727280  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1206A/G1228A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  404 
405  23S  96092.1  1207    1239  HELIX  134727280  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  405 
406  23S  96092.1  1207    1239  HELIX  134727280  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1207U/C1243U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  406 
407  16S  96080.1  1207    1051  HELIX  134696080  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal.b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  407 
408  16S  96080.1  1207    1051  HELIX  134696080  G to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal.b  Jemiolo, D.K., Taurence, J.S., and Giese, S. (1991). Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4259-4265.  408 
409  23S  96092.1  1208    1238  HELIX  134727280  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  409 
410  23S  96092.1  1208    1238  HELIX  134727280  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (C1208U/C1211U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  410 
411  23S  96092.1  1208    1238  HELIX  134727280  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1208U/C1243U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  411 
412  23S  96092.1  1211    INTERNAL  134734156  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (C1211U/C1208U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  412 
413  23S  96092.1  1215    1234  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  413 
414  23S  96092.1  1218    1231  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1218A/G1245A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  414 
415  23S  96092.1  1220    1229  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (G1220A/G1239A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  415 
416  23S  96092.1  1221    1228  HELIX  134727316  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1221U/C1229U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  416 
417  23S  96092.1  1221    1228  HELIX  134727316  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1221U/C1233U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  417 
418  23S  96092.1  1221    1228  HELIX  134727316  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (C1221U/C1243U)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  418 
419  23S  96092.1  1225    HAIRPIN  134734192  ?1225  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double deletion (del1225/del1226)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  419 
420  23S  96092.1  1225    HAIRPIN  134734192  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  420 
421  23S  96092.1  1226    HAIRPIN  134734192  ?1225  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double deletion (?1226/?1225)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  421 
422  23S  96092.1  1227    1222  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1227A/G1236A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  422 
423  23S  96092.1  1228    1221  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1228A/G1206A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  423 
424  23S  96092.1  1229    1220  HELIX  134727316  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  424 
425  23S  96092.1  1230    1219  HELIX  134727316  ?1230  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double deletion (?1230/?1231)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  425 
426  23S  96092.1  1231    1218  HELIX  134727316  ?1231  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double deletion (?1231/?1230)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  426 
427  23S  96092.1  1232    1217  HELIX  134727316  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1232A/G1238A)  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  427 
428  23S  96092.1  1233    1216  HELIX  134727316  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  428 
429  23S  96092.1  1234    1215  HELIX  134727316  del1234/del1235  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (U1234C/del1235)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  429 
430  23S  96092.1  1234    1215  HELIX  134727316  U to C  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  430 
431  23S  96092.1  1235    INTERNAL  134734156  del1235/del1234  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (?1235/U1234C)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  431 
432  23S  96092.1  1235    INTERNAL  134734156  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Dam, M., Douthwaite, S., Tenson, T. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 259, 1-6.  432 
433  23S  96092.1  1236    INTERNAL  134734156  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  433 
434  23S  96092.1  1236    INTERNAL  134734156  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1236A/G1227A)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  434 
435  23S  96092.1  1238    1208  HELIX  134727280  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  435 
436  23S  96092.1  1238    1208  HELIX  134727280  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1238A/G1232A)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  436 
437  23S  96092.1  1239    1207  HELIX  134727280  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1239A/G1220A)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  437 
438  23S  96092.1  1243    1202  HELIX  134727244  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1243U/C1208U)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  438 
439  23S  96092.1  1243    1202  HELIX  134727244  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1243U/C1221U)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  439 
440  16S  96080.1  1243    1294  HELIX  134696512  U to A  E. coli  562  Impaired growth.  Poot, R.A., Jeeniga, R.E., Pleij, C.W.A., and van Duin, J. (1997). FEBS Letters 401, 175-179.   440 
441  23S  96092.1  1243    1202  HELIX  134727244  C to U  E. coli  562  Erythromycin resistant. a Double mutant (C1243U/C1207).  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  441 
442  16S  96080.1  1244    1293  HELIX  134696512  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192)Spcs.b Double mutant (C1293U/G1244A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.  442 
443  16S  96080.1  1244    1293  HELIX  134696512  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192)Spcs.b Double mutant (G1244A/C1293U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   443 
444  16S  96080.1  1245    1292  HELIX  134696512  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc abolished by G1292A alone. b Double mutant (C1245U/G1292A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   444 
445  23S  96092.1  1245    1200  HELIX  134727244  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a Double mutant (G1245A/G1218A)  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  445 
446  16S  96080.1  1245    1292  HELIX  134696512  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc abolished by G1292A alone. b Double mutant (G1292A/C1245U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.  446 
447  23S  96092.1  1248    INTERNAL  134734084  G to A  E. coli  562  Erythromycin sensitive. a  Douthwaite, S., Powers, T., Lee, J.Y., and Noller, H.F. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 209, 655-665.  447 
448  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to G  E. coli  562  With erythromycin; lethal  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  448 
449  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to C  E. coli  562  With erythromycin; lethal  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  449 
450  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to U  E. coli  562  With erythromycin; reduced growth rate  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  450 
451  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to C  E. coli  562  With erythromycin; reduced growth rate Double mutant (A1262C/U2017G)  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  451 
452  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to G  E. coli  562  Suppression of growth effects; Wild-type growth on erythromycin Double mutant (A1262G/U2017C)  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  452 
453  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to U  E. coli  562  Suppression of growth effects; Wild-type growth on erythromycin Double mutant (A1262U/U2017A)  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  453 
454  23S  96092.1  1262    2017  HELIX  134727352  A to U  E. coli  562  With erythromycin; reduced growth rate Double mutant (A1262U/U2017G)  Aagaard, C., and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  454 
455  16S  96080.1  1292    1245  HELIX  134696512  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   455 
456  16S  96080.1  1292    1245  HELIX  134696512  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc abolished by G1292A alone. b Double mutant (G1292A/C1245U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   456 
457  16S  96080.1  1292    1245  HELIX  134696512  G to A  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Restores Spc abolished by G1292A alone. b Double mutant (C1245U/G1292A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.  457 
458  16S  96080.1  1293    1244  HELIX  134696512  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192)Spcs.b Double mutant (G1244A/C1293U).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.  458 
459  16S  96080.1  1293    1244  HELIX  134696512  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192) Spcts recessive. b  Triman, K., Becker, E., Dammel, C., Katz,J., Mori, H., Douthwaite, S., Yapijakis, C., Yoast, S., and Noller, H.F. (1989). J. Mol. Biol. 209, 645-653.   459 
460  16S  96080.1  1293    1244  HELIX  134696512  C to U  E. coli  562  (With U1192)Spcs.b Double mutant (C1293U/G1244A).  Triman, K. (1995). J. Bacteriol. 177, 4514-4516.   460 
461  16S  96080.1  1341  942  HELIX  134695720  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased S7 affinity. c  Dragon, F., Payant, C., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1994). J. Mol. Biol. 244, 74-85.  461 
462  16S  96080.1  1341  942  HELIX  134695720  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate.  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  462 
463  16S  96080.1  1341  942  HELIX  134695720  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate. Double mutant (U1341C/C1192U).  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  463 
464  16S  96080.1  1351    1371  HELIX  134696728  A to C  E. coli  562  Counteracts mutation C1192 and restores spectinomycin binding. No cell growth. Double mutant (A1351C/C1192U).  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  464 
465  16S  96080.1  1351    1371  HELIX  134696728  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate.  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  465 
466  16S  96080.1  1351    1371  HELIX  134696728  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduced S7 affinitay. c  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  466 
467  16S  96080.1  1357    1365  HELIX  134696728  A to C  E. coli  562  No effect on S7 binding. c  Dragon, F., Spickler, C., Pinard, R., Carriere, J., and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1996). 259, 207-215.  467 
468  16S  96080.1  1386    931  HELIX  134695648  G to A  N. tabacum  4097    Spectinomycin resistance in N. tabacum.  Svab Z., and Maliga, P. (1991). Mol. Gen. Genet. 228, 316-319.  468 
469  16S  96080.1  1388    929  HELIX  134695648  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643.   469 
470  16S  96080.1  1389    928  HELIX  134695648  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643.   470 
471  16S  96080.1  1394  BULGE  134700076  A to C  E. coli  562  Wild-type tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  471 
472  16S  96080.1  1394  BULGE  134700076  del A  E. coli  562  Negligible tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  472 
473  16S  96080.1  1394  BULGE  134700076  A to G  E. coli  562  Wild-type tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  473 
474  16S  96080.1  1394  BULGE  134700076  A to U  E. coli  562  Wild-type tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  474 
475  16S  96080.1  1395  922  HELIX  134695576  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b  Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146.  475 
476  16S  96080.1  1395  922  HELIX  134695576  C to U  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  476 
477  16S  96080.1  1395  922  HELIX  134695576  C to U  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over C1395U alone. Double mutant (C1395U/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  477 
478  16S  96080.1  1397  FREE  134701192  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643.  478 
479  16S  96080.1  1397  FREE  134701192  del C  E. coli  562  Impaired in initiation of translation. c  1) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Weitzmann, C., and Ofengand, J. (1989). Biochemistry 28, 1012-1019. 2) Denman, R., Weitzmann, C., Cunningham, P.R., Negre, D., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Pan, Y.-C., Miedel, M., and Ofengand,  479 
480  16S  96080.1  1398  FREE  134701192  del A  E. coli  562  Impaired in initiation of translation. c  1) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Weitzmann, C., and Ofengand, J. (1989). Biochemistry 28, 1012-1019. 2) Denman, R., Weitzmann, C., Cunningham, P.R., Negre, D., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Pan, Y.-C., Miedel, M., and Ofengand,  480 
481  16S  96080.1  1399  1504  HELIX  134696764  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. b  Rottmann, N., Klewvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90.  481 
482  16S  96080.1  1399  1504  HELIX  134696764  C to U  E. coli  562  Slight reduction in cellular growth rate. b  Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643.   482 
483  16S  96080.1  1399  1504  HELIX  134696764  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Ribosomes are totally inactive. b Double mutant (C1399A/G1401C).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   483 
484  16S  96080.1  1399  1504  HELIX  134696764  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Severe impairment of ribosome function. b Double mutant (C1399A/G1401U).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   484 
485  16S  96080.1  1399    1504  HELIX  134696764  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Ribosomes are totally inactive. b Double mutant (G1401C/C1399A).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   485 
486  16S  96080.1  1399    1504  HELIX  134696764  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Severe impairment of ribosome function. b Double mutant (G1401U/C1399A).  1) Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95. 2) Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90. 3) Thoma  486 
487  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter; inhibited ribosomal activity. b,c  Hui, A.S., Eaton, D.H., and DeBoer, H.A. (1988). EMBO J. 7, 4383-4388.  487 
488  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  C to G  E. coli  562  Inhibited ribosomal activity. b,c  Krzyzosiak, W., Denman, R., Nurse, K., Hellmann, W., Boublik, M., Gehrke, C.W., Agris, P.F., and Ofengand, J. (1987). Biochemistry 26, 2353-2364.   488 
489  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on ribosomal activity. b,c  Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643.   489 
490  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  del C  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  490 
491  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  del C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal. b Initiation-dependent protein synthesis blocked. c  Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146.   491 
492  16S  96080.1  1400  INTERNAL  134700112  del C  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over [[Delta]]C1400 alone. Double mutant (?C1400/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  492 
493  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. b  Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146.   493 
494  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  G1401C disrupted tRNA binding and polypeptide synthesis. c  Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90.   494 
495  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Ribosomes are totally inactive. b Double mutant (G1401C/C1399A).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   495 
496  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  Impaired A-site function; enhanced tRNA fMet selectivity. c Double mutant (G1401C/C1501G).  1) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., Negre, D., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 7629-7637. 2) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022. 3) Ringqu  496 
497  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Severe impairment of ribosome function. b Double mutant (G1401U/C1399A).  1) Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95. 2) Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90. 3) Thoma  497 
498  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  del G  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. b All ribosomal functions blocked. c  1) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 2) Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90. 3) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham  498 
499  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  Induced appearance of numerous reactive changes in 1400/1500 regions and 1360/1375 regions; decrease reactivity in more distant 1365/1375 regions; strengthened conformation of helix 44. c  Moine H, Nurse K, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, Ofengand J. 1997. Conformational Analysis of Escherichia coli 30S Ribosomes Containing the Single-Base Mutations G530U, U1498G, G1401C, and C1501G and the Double-Base Mutation G1401C/C1501G. Biochemistry 36: 137  499 
500  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  G1401C/C1501G  E. coli  562  Showed fewer reactivity changes when compared to wild type; hyperreactive toward kethoxal; partially compensated for destabilizing effect of single mutations. c  Moine H, Nurse K, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, Ofengand J. 1997. Conformational Analysis of Escherichia coli 30S Ribosomes Containing the Single-Base Mutations G530U, U1498G, G1401C, and C1501G and the Double-Base Mutation G1401C/C1501G. Biochemistry 36: 137  500 
501  16S  96080.1  1401  1501  HELIX  134696800  G to U  E. coli  562  G1401C disrupted tRNA binding and polypeptide synthesis. c  Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90.   501 
502  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Ribosomes are totally inactive. b Double mutant (C1399A/G1401C).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   502 
503  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  G to U  E. coli  562  Lethal under natural promoter. Severe impairment of ribosome function. b Double mutant (C1399A/G1401U).  Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95.   503 
504  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  G to C  E. coli  562  Impaired A-site function; enhanced tRNA fMet selectivity. c Double mutant (C1501G/G1401C).  1) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., Negre, D., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 7629-7637. 2) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022. 3) Ringqu  504 
505  16S  96080.1  1401    1501  HELIX  134696800  C to G  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1497C/C1401G).  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 3) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R.,   505 
506  16S  96080.1  1402  1500  HELIX  134696800  C to U  E. coli  562  Slight reduction in cellular growth rate. b  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146.   506 
507  16S  96080.1  1402  1500  HELIX  134696800  del C  E. coli  562  Initiation-dependent proetin synthesis blocked. b  1) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Weitzmann, C., and Ofengand, J. (1989). Biochemistry 28, 1012-1019. 2) Denman, R., Weitzmann, C., Cunningham, P.R., Negre, D., Nurse, K., Colgan, J., Pan, Y.-C., Miedel, M., and Ofengan  507 
508  16S  96080.1  1404  1497  HELIX  134696836  C to U  E. coli  562  Slight reduction in cellular growth rate. b Inhibited tRNA binding. c  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 3) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R.,   508 
509  16S  96080.1  1404  1497  HELIX  134696836  C1404G/G1497C  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 3) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R.,   509 
510  16S  96080.1  1405  1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  510 
511  16S  96080.1  1405  1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Significantly reduced interaction with Paromomycin at positions 1491 and 1494.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  511 
512  16S  96080.1  1405  1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (G1405C/C1496G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  512 
513  16S  96080.1  1405    1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1497C/G1405C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  513 
514  16S  96080.1  1405    1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (C1496G/G1405C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  514 
515  16S  96080.1  1405  1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1405C/C1496G).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  515 
516  16S  96080.1  1405  1496  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1405C/G1497C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  516 
517  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to A  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  517 
518  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (U1406G/U1495G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  518 
519  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to C  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  519 
520  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on Paramomycin binding. Double mutant (U1495G/U1406G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  520 
521  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to A  E. coli  562  Nonlethal; upon introduction, the pattern of chemical modification in the absence of paromycin is indistinguishable from that of wildtype 30S subunits; no discernable reduction in affinity. a  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  521 
522  16S  96080.1  1406    INTERNAL  134700184  U to C  E. coli  562  Lethal; causes changes in the chemical probing pattern of 16S rRNA in mutant 30S subunits, in addition to detrimental effects of these mutations; causes changes in the conformation of the A site that extend to lower stem of the decoding region; no discena  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  522 
523  16S  96080.1  1407    1494  HELIX  134696872  U1407G/G1494C  E. coli  562  Reduced affinity for the aminoglycoside paromomycin. a  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  523 
524  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to G  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  524 
525  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant Lethal. b  1) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 2) Zimmerman, R.A., Thomas, C.L., and Wower, J. (1990). In The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution (W.E. Hill, A. Dahlberg, R.A  525 
526  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to U  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  526 
527  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to G  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407G/G1494C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  527 
528  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to U  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407U/G1494G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  528 
529  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to U  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407U/G1494A).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  529 
530  16S  96080.1  1407  1494  HELIX  134696872  C to U  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over C1407U alone. Double mutant (C1407U/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  530 
531  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to C  E. coli  562  Moderate reduction of Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  531 
532  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Gain resistance to gentamicin, amikacin, or tobramycin in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  Sander, P., Prammananan, T. and Bottger, E.C. (1995) Mol. Microbiol. 22, 841-848.  532 
533  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    High level neamine and kanamycin resistance in C. reinhardtii.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123:281-292.  533 
534  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  E. coli  562  Weak reduction of Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  534 
535  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to U  E. coli  562  Large reduction of Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  535 
536  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduced affinity for the aminoglycoside paromomycin. a  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  536 
537  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  Mycobacterium absessus  36809  Causes rsistance to amikacin, karamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and neomycin. c  Prammananan T, Sander P, Brown B.A., Frischkorn K, Onyi G.O., Zhang Y, Bottger E.C., Wallace R.J. 1998. A Single 16S Ribosomal RNA Substitution Is Responsible for Resistance to Amikacin and Other 2-Deoxystreptamine Aminoglycoside in Mycobacterium abscessu  537 
538  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  Mycobacterium chelonae  1774  Causes resistance to amikacin, karamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin and neomycin. c  Prammananan T, Sander P, Brown B.A., Frischkorn K, Onyi G.O., Zhang Y, Bottger E.C., Wallace R.J. 1998. A Single 16S Ribosomal RNA Substitution Is Responsible for Resistance to Amikacin and Other 2-Deoxystreptamine Aminoglycoside in Mycobacterium abscessu  538 
539  16S  96080.1  1408    INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Aminoglycoside resistant. b  Sander, P., Prammananan, T. and Bottger, E.C. (1997) Mol. Microbiol. 26, (3): 469-480.  539 
540  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  540 
541  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Lethal. b  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  541 
542  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C1409U/G1491C  E. coli  562  Decreased binding to the paromomycin-coupled matrix. c  Blanchard S.C., Fourmy D, Eason R.G., Puglisi J.D. 1998. rRNA Chemical Groups Required for Aminoglyside Binding. Biochemistry 37: 7716-7724.  542 
543  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Increased levels ofstop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491A/C1409A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  543 
544  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. Double mutant (G1491A/C1409G).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  544 
545  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to U  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491A/C1409U).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  545 
546  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491C/C1409G).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  546 
547  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. b Double mutant (G1491C/C1409G).  De Stasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.   547 
548  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (C1411G/C1409A).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  548 
549  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Paromomycin resistance in yeast mitochondria.  Li, M., Tzagoloff, A., Underbrink-Lyon, K. and Martin, N.C. (1982). J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5921-5928.  549 
550  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  550 
551  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Lethal. b  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  551 
552  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to U  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Low level neamine and kanamycin resistance in C. reinhardtii.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989). Genetics 123, 281-292.  552 
553  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to U  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. b  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  553 
554  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491U).  1) Hui, A.S., Eaton, D.H., and DeBoer, H.A. (1988). EMBO J. 7, 4383-4388. 2) DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  554 
555  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (C1409A/C1411G).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  555 
556  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced interaction with Paromomycin. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491U).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  556 
557  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to A  E. coli  562  Increased frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  557 
558  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  558 
559  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. b Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  559 
560  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced interaction with Paromomycin. Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  560 
561  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to U  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (C1409U/G1491A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  561 
562  16S  96080.1  1409    1491  HELIX  134696908  C to U  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. Double mutant (C1409U/G1491A).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  562 
563  16S  96080.1  1411    1489  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (C1411G/C1409A).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  563 
564  16S  96080.1  1411    1489  HELIX  134696908  C to G  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (C1409A/C1411G).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  564 
565  16S  96080.1  1416    1484  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Reduced association between 30S and 50S subunits.  1) Meier, N., Goringer, H.U., Kleuvers, B., Scheibe, U., Eberle, J., Szymkowiak,C., Zacharias, M., and Wagner, R. (1986). FEBS Lett. 204, 89-95. 2) Rottmann, N., Kleuvers, B., Atmadja, J., and Wagner, R. (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 177, 81-90.   565 
566  23S  96092.1  1423    1575  HELIX  134727964  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppressed requirement for 4.5S RNA in translation of natural mRNAs by cell extracts. c  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C. A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  566 
567  16S  96080.1  1431    INTERNAL  134700292  A to G  E. coli  562  Nonsense suppressor. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  567 
568  16S  96080.1  1469    INTERNAL  134700292  C to U  E. coli  562  Slow growth rate; ribosomal ambiguity phenotype. a  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Allen, P.N. and Noller, H.F. (1991). Cell 66, 141-148.   568 
569  16S  96080.1  1479    1421  HELIX  134696944  C to G  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Suppression of ribosomal frameshifting in yeast mitochondria.  Weiss-Brummer, B. and Huttenhofer, A. (1989) Mol. Gen. Genet. 217: 362-369.  569 
570  16S  96080.1  1483  INTERNAL  134700256  A to G  E. coli  562  Nonsense suppressor. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  570 
571  16S  96080.1  1489    1411  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (G1491U/G1489C).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  571 
572  16S  96080.1  1489    1411  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (G1489C/G1491U).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  572 
573  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppressor of UGA nonsense mutation in trpA. b  Gregory, S.T. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 4234-4238.  573 
574  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Paramomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamycin, aparamycin, hygromycin. b Higher order structure rearrangement. c  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  574 
575  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Decreased binding to the paromonycin-coupled matrix. c  Blanchard S.C., Fourmy D, Eason R.G., Puglisi J.D. 1998. rRNA Chemical Groups Required for Aminoglyside Binding. Biochemistry 37: 7716-7724.  575 
576  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (G1489C/G1491U).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  576 
577  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Paramomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamycin, aparamycin, hygromycin. b Higher order structure rearrangement. c  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  577 
578  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  578 
579  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  579 
580  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  580 
581  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. b Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  581 
582  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced interaction with Paromomycin. Double mutant (C1409G/G1491C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  582 
583  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (C1409U/G1491A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  583 
584  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. Double mutant (C1409U/G1491A).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  584 
585  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  585 
586  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  Tetrahymena thermophilia  5911    Paromomycin resistance in Tetrahymena thermophilia.  Spangler, E.A. and Blackburn, E.A. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260: 6334-6340.   586 
587  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Weakened interaction with Paromomycin.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  587 
588  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased levels ofstop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491A/C1409A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  588 
589  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. Double mutant (G1491A/C1409G).  DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  589 
590  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491A/C1409U).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  590 
591  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased accuracy; small decreases in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b Double mutant (G1491C/C1409G).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  591 
592  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to C  E. coli  562  No drug resistance. b Double mutant (G1491C/C1409G).  De Stasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.   592 
593  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (G1491U/G1489C).  Hui, A. and DeBoer, H.A. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 84, 4762-4766.  593 
594  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. b Double mutant (G1491U/C1409A).  1) Hui, A.S., Eaton, D.H., and DeBoer, H.A. (1988). EMBO J. 7, 4383-4388. 2) De Stasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  594 
595  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced interaction with Paromomycin. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491U).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  595 
596  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491A).  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  596 
597  16S  96080.1  1491    1409  HELIX  134696908  G to U  E. coli  562  Ribosome activity reduced. Double mutant (C1409A/G1491U).  1) Hui, A.S., Eaton, D.H., and DeBoer, H.A. (1988). EMBO J. 7, 4383-4388. 2) DeStasio, E.A., Moazed, D., Noller, H.F., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1989). EMBO J. 8, 1213-1216.  597 
598  16S  96080.1  1492  INTERNAL  134700220  A to C  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)   598 
599  16S  96080.1  1492  INTERNAL  134700220  A to C  E. coli  562  No effect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (A1492C/A1493C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  599 
600  16S  96080.1  1492  INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)   600 
601  16S  96080.1  1492  INTERNAL  134700220  A to U  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)   601 
602  16S  96080.1  1493    INTERNAL  134700220  A to C  E. coli  562  No effect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (A1492C/A1493C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  602 
603  16S  96080.1  1493  INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  603 
604  16S  96080.1  1493  INTERNAL  134700220  A to U  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  604 
605  16S  96080.1  1493  INTERNAL  134700220  A to C  E. coli  562  Lethal; incorporated into polysomes. b  1) Santer, M., Davis,, B., Solky, B., Zlotolow, D., Santer, U.V. (1995) Abstract 52. Frontiers in Translation, in press. 2) Santer, M. and Santer, U. (personal communication)  605 
606  16S  96080.1  1493  INTERNAL  134700220  A to G  E. coli  562  Nonsense suppressor. b  Murgola, E.J., Pael, R.T., Hijazi, K.A., Arkov, A.L., Xu, W. and Zhao, S.Q. (1995). Biochem. Cell Biol. 73, 925-931.  606 
607  16S  96080.1  1494    1407  HELIX  134696872  G to C  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  607 
608  16S  96080.1  1494    1407  HELIX  134696872  G to A  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407U/G1494A).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  608 
609  16S  96080.1  1494    1407  HELIX  134696872  G to C  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407G/G1494C).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  609 
610  16S  96080.1  1494    1407  HELIX  134696872  G to G  E. coli  562  Severely impaired Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (C1407U/G1494G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  610 
611  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (U1406G/U1495G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  611 
612  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to C  E. coli  562  Greatly reduced affinity for Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  612 
613  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to A  E. coli  562  Reduced affinity for the aminoglycoside paromomycin. a  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  613 
614  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  Reduced affinity for the aminoglycoside paromomycin. a  Retch M.I., Douthwaite S, Dahlquist K.D., Puglisi J.D. 1999. Effect of Mutations in the A site of 16S rRNA in Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Ribosome Interaction. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 33-43.  614 
615  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to A  E. coli  562  Greatly reduced affinity for Paromomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  615 
616  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on Paramomycin binding.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  616 
617  16S  96080.1  1495    INTERNAL  134700184  U to G  E. coli  562  No effect on Paramomycin binding. Double mutant (U1495G/U1406G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  617 
618  16S  96080.1  1496  1405  HELIX  134696836  C to G  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  618 
619  16S  96080.1  1496  1405  HELIX  134696836  C to G  E. coli  562  Significant reduction of paromomycin binding at positions 1405 and 1491. Slight reduction of Paromomycin binding at position 1494.  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  619 
620  16S  96080.1  1496  1405  HELIX  134696836  C to G  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (C1496G/G1405C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  620 
621  16S  96080.1  1496    1405  HELIX  134696836  C to G  E. coli  562  No affect on Paromomycin binding. Double mutant (G1405C/C1496G).  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  621 
622  16S  96080.1  1496    1405  HELIX  134696836  C to G  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1405C/C1496G).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  622 
623  16S  96080.1  1497    1404  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1405C/G1497C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  623 
624  16S  96080.1  1497  1404  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c  Miyaguchi, H., Narita, H., Sakamoto, K., and Yokoyama, S. (1996). Nucleic Acids Research 24, 3700-3706.  624 
625  16S  96080.1  1497  1404  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Restored tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1497C/C1401G).  1) Jemiolo, D.K, Zwieb, C., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1985). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8631-8643. 2) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 3) Denman, R., Negre, D., Cunningham, P.R.,   625 
626  16S  96080.1  1497  1404  HELIX  134696836  G to C  E. coli  562  Inhibited tRNA binding. c Double mutant (G1497C/G1405C).  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., and Ofengand, J. (1993). Biochemistry 32, 7172-7180.  626 
627  16S  96080.1  1498  INTERNAL  134700148  U to G  E. coli  562  U1498G strongly inhibited fMet-Val formation; A-site function impaired; enhanced tRNA fMet tRNA selectivity. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  627 
628  16S  96080.1  1498    INTERNAL  134700148  U to G  E. coli  562  No reaction to CMCT; some reactivity with kethoxal;enhanced reactivity of kethoxal in G 1405. c  Moine H, Nurse K, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, Ofengand J. 1997. Conformational Analysis of Escherichia coli 30S Ribosomes Containing the Single-Base Mutations G530U, U1498G, G1401C, and C1501G and the Double-Base Mutation G1401C/C1501G. Biochemistry 36: 137  628 
629  16S  96080.1  1498  INTERNAL  134700148  U to C  E. coli  562  U1498G strongly inhibited fMet-Val formation; A-site function impaired; enhanced tRNA fMet tRNA selectivity. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  629 
630  16S  96080.1  1498  INTERNAL  134700148  U to A  E. coli  562  U1498G strongly inhibited fMet-Val formation; A-site function impaired; enhanced tRNA fMet tRNA selectivity. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  630 
631  16S  96080.1  1501    1401  HELIX  134696800  C to G  E. coli  562  Impaired A-site function; enhanced tRNA fMet selectivity. c Double mutant (G1401C/C1501G).  1) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., Negre, D., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 7629-7637. 2) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022. 3) Ringqu  631 
632  16S  96080.1  1501    1401  HELIX  134696800  C to G  E. coli  562  Caused numerous increase of inactivity in 1400/1500 regions; guanine residue becomes highly reactive. c  Moine H, Nurse K, Ehresmann B, Ehresmann C, Ofengand J. 1997. Conformational Analysis of Escherichia coli 30S Ribosomes Containing the Single-Base Mutations G530U, U1498G, G1401C, and C1501G and the Double-Base Mutation G1401C/C1501G. Biochemistry 36: 137  632 
633  16S  96080.1  1501  1401  HELIX  134696800  C to G  E. coli  562  Disrupted tRNA binding and polypeptide synthesis. c  1) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., Negre, D., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 7629-7637. 2) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.  633 
634  16S  96080.1  1501  1401  HELIX  134696800  C to G  E. coli  562  Impaired A-site function; enhanced tRNA fMet selectivity. c Double mutant (C1501G/G1401C).  1) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Weitzmann, C.J., Negre, D., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 7629-7637. 2) Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022. 3) Ringqu  634 
635  16S  96080.1  1505  FREE  134701228  G to A  E. coli  562  Suppresses ?C1400, C1395U, and C1470U. b,c  1) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 2) Zimmerman, R.A., Thomas, C.L., and Wower, J. (1990). In The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution (W.E. Hill, A. Dahlberg, R.  635 
636  16S  96080.1  1505  FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Increased levels of stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. b  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995). Biochem. Cell. Biol. 73, 852-868.  636 
637  16S  96080.1  1505  FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Slower growth rate than G791A alone. Double mutant (G1505U/G791A).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  637 
638  16S  96080.1  1505    FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over C1407U alone. Double mutant (C1407U/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  638 
639  16S  96080.1  1505    FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over [[Delta]]C1400 alone. Double mutant (?C1400/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  639 
640  16S  96080.1  1505    FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Viable cells, suppresses lethality. Stimulates initiation from a non-AUG initiation codon. Increased growth rate over C1395U alone. Double mutant (C1395U/G1505U).  O'Connor, M., Thomas, C.L., Zimmermann, R.A., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1997). Nucleic Acids Research 25, 1187-1193.  640 
641  16S  96080.1  1505  FREE  134701228  G to C  E. coli  562  Suppresses ?C1400, C1395U, and C1470U. b,c  1) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 2) Zimmerman, R.A., Thomas, C.L., and Wower, J. (1990). In The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution (W.E. Hill, A. Dahlberg, R.  641 
642  16S  96080.1  1505  FREE  134701228  G to U  E. coli  562  Suppresses ?C1400, C1395U, and C1470U. b,c  1) Thomas, C.L., Gregory, R.J., Winslow, G., Muto, A., and Zimmerman, R.A. (1988). Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 8129-8146. 2) Zimmerman, R.A., Thomas, C.L., and Wower, J. (1990). In The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Evolution (W.E. Hill, A. Dahlberg, R.  642 
643  16S  96080.1  1512    1523  HELIX  134697088  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on initiation complex formation.c Double mutant (C1524U/U1512C).  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  643 
644  16S  96080.1  1512  1523  HELIX  134697088  U to G  E. coli  562  U512G no effect on initiation complex formation; U512C enhanced tRNA fMet binding and selectivity. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  644 
645  16S  96080.1  1512  1523  HELIX  134697088  C to C  E. coli  562  No effect on initiation complex formation.c Double mutant (U1512C/C1524C).  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  645 
646  16S  96080.1  1512  1523  HELIX  134697088  U to C  E. coli  562  U512G no effect on initiation complex formation; U512C enhanced tRNA fMet binding and selectivity. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  646 
647  16S  96080.1  1512  1523  HELIX  134697088  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on initiation complex formation.c Double mutant (U1512C/C1524C).  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  647 
648  16S  96080.1  1518    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to C  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   648 
649  16S  96080.1  1518    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to G  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   649 
650  16S  96080.1  1518    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to U  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   650 
651  16S  96080.1  1519    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to G  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   651 
652  16S  96080.1  1519    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to U  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   652 
653  16S  96080.1  1519    HAIRPIN  134700436  A to C  E. coli  562  Little effect on ribosome assembly or function. (c)  Cunningham, P.R., Nurse, K., Bakin, A., Weitzmann, C.J., Pflumm, M., and Ofengand, J. (1992). Biochemistry 31, 12012-12022.   653 
654  16S  96080.1  1523    1512  HELIX  134697088  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on initiation complex formation. c  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  654 
655  16S  96080.1  1524    1511  HELIX  134697088  C to U  E. coli  562  No effect on initiation complex formation.c Double mutant (C1524U/U1512C).  Ringquist, S., Cunningham, P., Weitzmann, C., Formenoy, L., Pleij, C., Ofengand, J., and Gold, L. (1993). J. Mol. Biol. 234, 14-27.  655 
656  16S  96080.1  1530  TAIL  134697160  G to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under high copy number expression. b Deficient initiation complex formation, subunit association, and IF3 binding. c Double mutant (G1530A/A1531G).  Firpo, M.A., Connelly, M.B., Goss, D.J. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  656 
657  16S  96080.1  1530    TAIL  134697160  G to A  E. coli  562  Lethal under high copy number expression. b Deficient initiation complex formation, subunit association, and IF3 binding. c Double mutant (A1531G/G1530A).  Firpo, M.A., Connelly, M.B., Goss, D.J. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  657 
658  16S  96080.1  1531    TAIL  134697160  A to G  E. coli  562  Lethal under high copy number expression. b Deficient initiation complex formation, subunit association, and IF3 binding. c Double mutant (G1530A/A1531G).  Firpo, M.A., Connelly, M.B., Goss, D.J. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  658 
659  16S  96080.1  1531  TAIL  134697160  A to G  E. coli  562  Lethal under high copy number expression. b Deficient initiation complex formation, subunit association, and IF3 binding. c Double mutant (A1531G/G1530A).  Firpo, M.A., Connelly, M.B., Goss, D.J. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1990). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1050, 27-33.  659 
660  16S  96080.1  1533    TAIL  134697160  C to A  E. coli  562  Slight reduction in tRNA binding. c  Ericson, G., Minchew, P. and Wollenzien, P. (1995). J. Mol. Biol. 250, 407-419.  660 
661  16S  96080.1  1538    TAIL  134697160  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal under natural promoter; decreased complementarity to Shine-Delgarno region produces lower level protein synthesis. b  Jacob, W.F., Santer, M., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1987). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 4757-4761.  661 
662  23S  96092.1  1698    INTERNAL  134735128  A to G  E. coli  562  Suppresses 2555 mutations  O'Connor and Dahlberg, unpublished.  662 
663  23S  96092.1  1819    BULGE  134735416  A to G  E. coli  562  Suppresses 2555 mutations  O'Connor and Dahlberg, unpublished.  663 
664  23S  96092.1  1914    HAIRPIN  134735704  C to A  E. coli  562  Little or no effect on translational fidelity.  O'Connor and Dahlberg, unpublished.  664 
665  23S  96092.1  1914    HAIRPIN  134735704  C to U  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C. A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  665 
666  23S  96092.1  1916    HAIRPIN  134735704  del A  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor  O'Connor, M., Brunelli, C. A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  666 
667  23S  96092.1  1921    1909  HELIX  134729296  G to C  E. coli  562  Little or no effect on translational fidelity.  O'Connor and Dahlberg, unpublished.  667 
668  23S  96092.1  1926    HAIRPIN  134735740  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduced 70S ribosome formation in vivo; reduced peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  668 
669  23S  96092.1  1940    BULGE  134735776  U to A  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced 70S ribosome formation in vivo; slightly reduced peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  669 
670  23S  96092.1  1946    1960  HELIX  134729404  U to C  E. coli  562  Low level 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits not detected.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  670 
671  23S  96092.1  1951    HAIRPIN  134735812  U to C  E. coli  562  Normal 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits normal.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  671 
672  23S  96092.1  1955    HAIRPIN  134735812  U to G  E. coli  562  Low level 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits normal.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  672 
673  23S  96092.1  1956    1950  HELIX  134729404  U to A  E. coli  562  Low level 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits normal. low; normal  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  673 
674  23S  96092.1  1979    1772  HELIX  134728792  U to C  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits not detected.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  674 
675  23S  96092.1  1982    1770  HELIX  134728756  U to A  E. coli  562  70S ribosome formation in vivo not detected; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits not detected.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  675 
676  23S  96092.1  1984    1768  HELIX  134728756  G to A  E. coli  562  low 70S ribosome formation in vivo; peptidyl transferase activity in 50S subunits not detected.  Leviev, I., Levieva, S. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) Nucleic Acids. Res. 23, 1512-1517.  676 
677  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to G  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate on erythromycin.  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  677 
678  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate of erythromycin.  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  678 
679  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to A  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate of erythromycin.  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  679 
680  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to A  E. coli  562  Suppression of growth effects; wild-type growth on erythromycin. Double mutation (U2017A/A1262U)  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  680 
681  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate on erythromycin. Double mutation (U2017C/A1262G)  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  681 
682  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to G  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate on erythromycin. Double mutation (U2017G/A1262C)  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  682 
683  23S  96092.1  2017    1262  HELIX  134727352  U to G  E. coli  562  Reduced growth rate on erythromycin. Double mutation (U2017G/A1262U)  Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993.  683 
684  23S  96092.1  2026    2037  HELIX  134729440  U to C  E. coli  562  Suppresses 2555 mutations.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  684 
685  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to C  E. coli  562  Eryhs, Cdr, Cmr; no effect on methylation.  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  685 
686  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to A  E. coli  562  Eryhs, Cdr, Cmr; no effect on methylation.  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  686 
687  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  C to U  E. coli  562  Eryhs, Cdr, Cmr; no effect on methylation.  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  687 
688  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to A  Tobbaco chloroplasts    Lincomycin resistance.  Cseplö, A., Etzold, T., Schell, J., and Schreier, P.H. (1988) Mol. Genet. 214, 295-299.  688 
689  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to A  E. coli  562  EryS, Cds, Cms. Double mutation (G2032A/A2058G)  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  689 
690  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to A  E. coli  562  Eryhs, Cds, Cms. Double mutation (G2032A/A2058U).  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  690 
691  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  G to A  E. coli  562  Eryr, Cdr, Cmr. Double mutation (G2032A/G2057A).  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  691 
692  23S  96092.1  2032    HAIRPIN  134735884  AG to GA  Helicobacter pylori  210  Clr/Azm/Ery-R  Húlten, K., A. Gibreel, O. Sköld, and L. Engstrand. 1997. Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori: mechanism and stability in strains from clarithromycin-treated patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2550-2553.  692 
693  23S  96092.1  2051    BULGE  134735920  del A  E. coli  562  Prevents ErmE methylation. c  Vester B, Nielsen AK, Hansen LH, Douthwaite S. 1998. ErmE Methyltransferase Recognition Elements in RNA Substrates. J. Mol. Biol. 282: 255-264.  693 
694  23S  96092.1  2052    2617  HELIX  134729512  A to C  E. coli  562  Prevents ErmE methylation. c  Vester B, Nielsen AK, Hansen LH, Douthwaite S. 1998. ErmE Methyltransferase Recognition Elements in RNA Substrates. J. Mol. Biol. 282: 255-264.  694 
695  23S  96092.1  2052    2617  HELIX  134729512  A to G  E. coli  562  Like A2052C. c  Vester B, Nielsen AK, Hansen LH, Douthwaite S. 1998. ErmE Methyltransferase Recognition Elements in RNA Substrates. J. Mol. Biol. 282: 255-264.  695 
696  23S  96092.1  2052    2617  HELIX  134729512  A to U  E. coli  562  Like A2052C. c  Vester B, Nielsen AK, Hansen LH, Douthwaite S. 1998. ErmE Methyltransferase Recognition Elements in RNA Substrates. J. Mol. Biol. 282: 255-264.  696 
697  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chl.  3055  Ery-R, Lin-S  Harris, E. H., B. D. Burkhart, N. W. Gillham, and J. E. Boynton. (1989) Genetics.Antibiotic resistance mutations in the chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: correlation of genetic and physical maps of the chloroplast genome.   697 
698  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  Escherichia coli  562  Ery-R, M16-S, Lin-S, SB?S  Ettayebi, M., S. M. Prasad, and E. A. Morgan. 1985. Chloramphenicol-erythromycin resistance mutations in a 23S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 162:551-557.  698 
699  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  Propionibacteria  1743  Ery-LR, M16-S  Ross, J. I., E. A. Eady, J. H. Cove, C. E. Jones, A. H. Ratyal, Y. W. Miller, S. Vyakrnam, and W. J. Cunliffe. 1997. Clinical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in cutaneous propionibacteria isolated from acne patients is associated with mutations  699 
700  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  GG to AA  Escherichia coli  562  Ery-R, Lin-R  Douthwaite, S. 1992. Functional interactions within 23S rRNA involving the peptidyltransferase center. J. Bacteriol. 174:1333-1338.  700 
701  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  E. coli  562  Eryr, Clinidamycin (Cd)s, Chloramphemicol (Cm)r; reduces methylation of 23S rRNA by ErmE.  1. Ettayebi, M., Prasad, S.M., and Morgan, E.A. (1985) J. Bacteriol. 162, 551-557 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  701 
702  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Eryr.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W., and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123, 281-292.  702 
703  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  E. coli  562  Slightly Eryr; reduced methylation. Double mutation (G2057A/C2661U).  Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  703 
704  23S  96092.1  2057    2611  HELIX  134729548  G to A  E. coli  562  Eryr, Cdr, Cmr. Double mutation (G2057A/G2032A).  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  704 
705  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Eryr, Lincomycin and clindamycin resistance.  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gilham, N.W., and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123, 281-292.  705 
706  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helecobacter pylori  210  Clarithromycin resistance  Versalovic, J., Shortridge, D., Kibler, K., Griffy, M.V., Beyer, J., Flamm, R.K., Tenaka, S.K., Graham, D.Y., and Go, M.F. (1996) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40, 477-480.  706 
707  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  Eryr, Cdr, Cms; abolishes methylation of 23S rRNA by ErmE.  1. Vester, B. and Garrett, R.A. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3577-3587. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  707 
708  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Erythromycin resistance.  Sor, F. and Fukuhara, H. (1982) Nucleic Acids Res. 10, 6571-6577.  708 
709  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Solanum nigrum  4112    Lincomycin resistance.  Kavanagh, T.A., O?Driscoll, K.M., McCabe, P.F., and Dix, P.J. (1994) Mol. Gen. Genet. 242, 675-680.  709 
710  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Tobacco chloroplasts    Lincomycin resistance.  Cseplö, A., Etzold, T., Schell, J., and Schreier, P.H. (1988) Mol. Genet. 214, 295-299.  710 
711  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  EryS, Cds, Cms. Double mutation (A2058G/G2032A).  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  711 
712  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  E. coli  562  Eryhs, Cds, Cms. Double mutation (A2058U/G2032A).  1. Douthwaite, S. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 1333-1338. 2. Aaagard, C. and Douthwaite, S. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2989-2993. 3. Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509.  712 
713  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G/U  Brachyspira hyodysenteriae  159  Ery-R, Tyl-R, Lin-R  Karlsson, M., C. Fellstrom, M. U. Heldtander, K. E. Johansson, and A. Franklin. 1999. Genetic basis of macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 172:255-260.  713 
714  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chl.  3055  Ery-R, Lin-R  Harris, E. H., B. D. Burkhart, N. W. Gillham, and J. E. Boynton. (1989 ). Genetics. Antibiotic resistance mutations in the chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: correlation of genetic and physical maps of the chloroplast genome.  714 
715  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Escherichia coli  562  Ery-R, Lin-R   1) Douthwaite, S. 1992. Functional interactions within 23S rRNA involving the peptidyltransferase center. J. Bacteriol. 174:1333-1338. 2) Vester, B., and R. A. Garrett. Biochimie, 69 (1987) 891-900. A plasmid-coded and site-directed mutation in Escherichi  715 
716  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  Escherichia coli  562  MLSB-R  Sigmund, C. D., M. Ettayebi, and E. A. Morgan. 1984. Antibiotic resistance mutations in 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of Escherichia coli. Nucl Acids Res. 12:4653-4663.  716 
717  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  Clr-R  Stone, G. G., D. Shortridge, R. K. Flamm, J. Versalovic, J. Beyer, K. Idler, L. Zulawinski, and S. K. Tanaka. 1996. Identification of a 23S rRNA gene mutation in clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 1:227-228.  717 
718  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  Mac-R, Lin-R  Occhialini, A., M. Urdaci, F. Doucet-Populaire, C. M. Bébéar, H. Lamouliatte, and F. Mégraud. 1997. Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori: rapid detection of point mutations and assays of macrolide binding to ribosomes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  718 
719  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  MLSB -R  Wang, G., and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1952-1958.  719 
720  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  Cla-R  Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J., A. B. Brinkman, E. J. Kuipers, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and J. G. Kusters. 1998. Explaining the bias in the 23S rRNA gene mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicr  720 
721  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Cla-R  Versalovic, J., D. Shortridge, K. Kibler, M. V. Griffy, J. Beyer, R. K. Flamm, S. K. Tanaka, D. Y. Graham, and M. F. Go. 1996. Mutations in 23S rRNA are associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:4  721 
722  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Mac-R, Lin-R  Occhialini, A., M. Urdaci, F. Doucet-Populaire, C. M. Bébéar, H. Lamouliatte, and F. Mégraud. 1997. Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori: rapid detection of point mutations and assays of macrolide binding to ribosomes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  722 
723  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  MLSB -R  Wang, G., and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1952-1958.  723 
724  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Cla-R  Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J., A. B. Brinkman, E. J. Kuipers, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and J. G. Kusters. 1998. Explaining the bias in the 23S rRNA gene mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicr  724 
725  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  Helicobacter pylori  210  MLSB -R  Wang, G., and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1952-1958.  725 
726  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  Helicobacter pylori  210  Cla-R  Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J., A. B. Brinkman, E. J. Kuipers, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and J. G. Kusters. 1998. Explaining the bias in the 23S rRNA gene mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicr  726 
727  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycobacterium abscessus  36809  Clr-R  Wallace, R. J., Jr., A. Meier, B. A. Brown, Y. Zhang, P. Sander, G. O. Onyi, and E. C. Böttger. 1996. Genetic basis for clarithromycin resistance among isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1676  727 
728  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C/G/U  Mycobacterium avium  1764  Clr-R  Nash, K. A., and C. B. Inderlied. 1995. Genetic basis of macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium isolated from patients with disseminated disease. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2625-2630.  728 
729  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C/G  Mycobacterium chelonae  1774  Clr-R  Wallace, R. J., Jr., A. Meier, B. A. Brown, Y. Zhang, P. Sander, G. O. Onyi, and E. C. Böttger. 1996. Genetic basis for clarithromycin resistance among isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1676  729 
730  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C/G/U  Mycobacterium intracellulare   1767  Clr-R  Meier, A., P. Kirschner, B. Springer, V. A. Steingrube, B. A. Brown, R. J. Wallace, Jr., and E. C. Böttger. 1994. Identification of mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin- resistant Mycobacterium intracellulare. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:38  730 
731  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  Mycobacterium kansasii  1768  Clr-R  Burman, W. J., B. L. Stone, B. A. Brown, R. J. Wallace, Jr., and E. C. Böttger. 1998. AIDS-related Mycobacterium kansasii infection with initial resistance to clarithromycin. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 31:369-371.  731 
732  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Clr-R  Sander, P., T. Prammananan, A. Meier, K. Frischkorn, and E. C. Böttger. 1997. The role of ribosomal RNAs in macrolide resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 26:469-480.  732 
733  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycoplasma pneumoniae  2104  Ery-HR, Spi-MR, Tyl-S, Lin-HR   Lucier, T. S., K. Heitzman, S. K. Liu, and P. C. Hu. 1995. Transition mutations in the 23S rRNA of erythromycin-resistant isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2770-2773.  733 
734  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Propionibacteria  1743  MLSB -R  Ross, J. I., E. A. Eady, J. H. Cove, C. E. Jones, A. H. Ratyal, Y. W. Miller, S. Vyakrnam, and W. J. Cunliffe. 1997. Clinical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in cutaneous propionibacteria isolated from acne patients is associated with mutations  734 
735  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Streptococcus pneumoniae  1313  MLSB -R  Tait-Kamradt, A., T. Davies, M. Cronan, M. R. Jacobs, P. C. Appelbaum, and J. Sutcliffe. 2000. Mutations in 23S rRNA and L4 ribosomal protein account for resistance in Pneumococcal strains selected in vitro by macrolide passage. Antimicrobial Agents and C  735 
736  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Streptomyces ambofaciens  1889  MLSB -R  Pernodet, J. L., F. Boccard, M. T. Alegre, M. H. Blondelet-Rouault, and M. Guérineau. 1988. Resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin type B antibiotics due to a mutation in an rRNA operon of Streptomyces ambofaciens. EMBO J. 7:277-282.  736 
737  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Saccharomyces cerevisiae mit.  4932  Ery-R  Sor, F., and H. Fukuhara. 1982. Identification of two erythromycin resistance mutations in the mitochondrial gene coding for the large ribosomal RNA in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 10:6571-6577.  737 
738  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Treponema pallidum  160  Ery-R  Stamm, L. V., and H. L. Bergen. 2000. A point mutation associated with bacterial macrolide resistance is present in both 23S rRNA genes of an erythromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum clinical isolate [letter]. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:806-807.  738 
739  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562  Confers resistance to the MLS drugs and chloramphenicol.  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.  739 
740  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  Like A2058C  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.   740 
741  23S  96092.1  2058    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  E. coli  562  Like A2058C  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.   741 
742  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562  Conferred resistance to the MLS drugs and chloramphenicol.  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.   742 
743  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  Like A2059C  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.   743 
744  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  E. coli  562  Like A2059C  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.   744 
745  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  Mac-R, Lin-R, SB-S   Wang, G., and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1952-1958.  745 
746  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Helicobacter pylori  210  Clr-R  Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J., A. B. Brinkman, E. J. Kuipers, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and J. G. Kusters. 1998. Explaining the bias in the 23S rRNA gene mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicr  746 
747  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Clr-R  Versalovic, J., D. Shortridge, K. Kibler, M. V. Griffy, J. Beyer, R. K. Flamm, S. K. Tanaka, D. Y. Graham, and M. F. Go. 1996. Mutations in 23S rRNA are associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:4  747 
748  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Mac-R, Lin-R  Occhialini, A., M. Urdaci, F. Doucet-Populaire, C. M. Bébéar, H. Lamouliatte, and F. Mégraud. 1997. Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori: rapid detection of point mutations and assays of macrolide binding to ribosomes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemothe  748 
749  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Mac-R, Lin-R, SB?S  Wang, G., and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Site-specific mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori confer two types of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1952-1958.  749 
750  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helicobacter pylori  210  Cla-R  Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J., A. B. Brinkman, E. J. Kuipers, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and J. G. Kusters. 1998. Explaining the bias in the 23S rRNA gene mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Antimicr  750 
751  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C/G  Mycobacterium abscessus  36809  Clr-R  Wallace, R. J., Jr., A. Meier, B. A. Brown, Y. Zhang, P. Sander, G. O. Onyi, and E. C. Böttger. 1996. Genetic basis for clarithromycin resistance among isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1676  751 
752  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycobacterium chelonae  1774  Clr-R  Wallace, R. J., Jr., A. Meier, B. A. Brown, Y. Zhang, P. Sander, G. O. Onyi, and E. C. Böttger. 1996. Genetic basis for clarithromycin resistance among isolates of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1676  752 
753  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Mycobacterium intracellulare  1767  Clr/Azm-R  Meier, A., P. Kirschner, B. Springer, V. A. Steingrube, B. A. Brown, R. J. Wallace, Jr., and E. C. Böttger. 1994. Identification of mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin- resistant Mycobacterium intracellulare. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:38  753 
754  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Mycobacterium avium  1764  Clr/Azm-R  Meier, A., P. Kirschner, B. Springer, V. A. Steingrube, B. A. Brown, R. J. Wallace, Jr., and E. C. Böttger. 1994. Identification of mutations in 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin- resistant Mycobacterium intracellulare. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:38  754 
755  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycobacterium smegmatis  1772  Clr-R  Sander, P., T. Prammananan, A. Meier, K. Frischkorn, and E. C. Böttger. 1997. The role of ribosomal RNAs in macrolide resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 26:469-480.  755 
756  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Mycoplasma pneumoniae  2104  Ery-MR, Spi-HR, Tyl-LR, Lin-MR  Lucier, T. S., K. Heitzman, S. K. Liu, and P. C. Hu. 1995. Transition mutations in the 23S rRNA of erythromycin-resistant isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2770-2773.  756 
757  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Streptococcus pneumoniae  1313  Mac-R  Tait-Kamradt, A., T. Davies, M. Cronan, M. R. Jacobs, P. C. Appelbaum, and J. Sutcliffe. 2000. Mutations in 23S rRNA and L4 ribosomal protein account for resistance in Pneumococcal strains selected in vitro by macrolide passage. Antimicrobial Agents and  757 
758  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Propionibacteria  1743  Mac-HR, Lin-LR  Ross, J. I., E. A. Eady, J. H. Cove, C. E. Jones, A. H. Ratyal, Y. W. Miller, S. Vyakrnam, and W. J. Cunliffe. 1997. Clinical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in cutaneous propionibacteria isolated from acne patients is associated with mutations  758 
759  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Helecobacter pylori  210  Clarithomycin resistance.   Versalovic, J., Shortridge, D., Kibler, K., Griffy, M.V., Beyer, J., Flamm, R.K., Tanaka, S.K., Graham, D.Y., and Go, M.F. (1996) Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 40, 477-480.  759 
760  23S  96092.1  2059    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  Tobacco chloroplasts    Lincomycin resistance.  Cseplö, A., Etzold, T., Schell, J., and Schreier, P.H. (1988) Mol. Genet. 214, 295-299.  760 
761  23S  96092.1  2060    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562    Vester, B. and Garrett, R.A. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3577-3587.  761 
762  23S  96092.1  2061    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  Rat mitochondria  10116  Chloramphenicol resistance   Vester, B. and Garrett, R.A. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3577-3587.  762 
763  23S  96092.1  2062    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Chloramphenicol resistance.  Mankin, A.S. and Garrett, R.A. (1991) J. Bacteriol. 173, 3559-3563.  763 
764  23S  96092.1  2123    2175  HELIX  134729908  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutations (G2123C/G2124C).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  764 
765  23S  96092.1  2124    2174  HELIX  134729908  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutation (G2124C/G2123C).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  765 
766  23S  96092.1  2125    MULTISTEM  134738728  G to A  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  766 
767  23S  96092.1  2125    MULTISTEM  134738728  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  767 
768  23S  96092.1  2125    MULTISTEM  134738728  G to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  768 
769  23S  96092.1  2125    MULTISTEM  134738728  G to U  E. coli  562  Slightly reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  769 
770  23S  96092.1  2125    MULTISTEM  134738728  G to U  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutations (G2125U/A2126C).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  770 
771  23S  96092.1  2126    MULTISTEM  134738728  A to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  771 
772  23S  96092.1  2126    MULTISTEM  134738728  A to G  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  772 
773  23S  96092.1  2126    MULTISTEM  134738728  A to C  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutations (A2126C/G2125U).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  773 
774  23S  96092.1  2174    2124  HELIX  134729908  C to G  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutations (C2174G/C2175G).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  774 
775  23S  96092.1  2175    2123  HELIX  134729908  C to G  E. coli  562  Reduced L1 binding in RNA fragments. a b Double mutations (C2175G/C2174G).  Said, B., Cole, J.R., and Nomura, M. (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 10529-10545.  775 
776  23S  96092.1  2249    2255  HELIX  134730088  U to C  E. coli  562  Normal growth.  1. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  776 
777  23S  96092.1  2250    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Normal growth.  1. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  777 
778  23S  96092.1  2250    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Normal growth. Double mutations (G2250A/C2254U).  1. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  778 
779  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; Abolished both binding of tRNA and peptidyl transferase activity.  Green, R., Samaha, R., and Noller, H. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 266, 40-50.  779 
780  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; subunit association defect.  Gregory, S.T. and Dahlberg, A.E. (unpublished).  780 
781  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal subunit association defect.  Gregory, S.T. and Dahlberg, A.E. (unpublished).  781 
782  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal subunit association defect.  Gregory, S.T. and Dahlberg, A.E. (unpublished).  782 
783  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; Abolished both binding of tRNA and peptidyl transferase activity.  Green, R., Samaha, R., and Noller, H. (1997). J. Mol. Biol. 266, 40-50.  783 
784  23S  96092.1  2251    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; impairs peptidyl transferase activity; induces DMS reactivity; induces kethoxal reactivity in G2238, G2409, G2410, G2529, and G2532; enhances CMCT reactivity in G2238; induces kethoxal and CMCT reactivity in G2269 and G2271; induces CMCT   Gregory ST, Dahlberg AE, 1999. Mutations in the Conserved P Loop Perturb the Conformation of Two Structural Elements in the Peptidyl Transferase Center of 23 S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 1475- 1483.  784 
785  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; impairs peptidyl transferase activity; induces DMS reactivity; induces kethoxal reactivity in G2238, G2409, G2410, G2529, and G2532; enhances CMCT reactivity in G2238; induces kethoxal and CMCT reactivity in G2269 and G2271; induces CMCT   Gregory ST, Dahlberg AE, 1999. Mutations in the Conserved P Loop Perturb the Conformation of Two Structural Elements in the Peptidyl Transferase Center of 23 S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 1475- 1483.  785 
786  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Interfere with the building of peptidyl-tRNA to P site of 50S subunit.  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  786 
787  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Interferes with the binding of peptidyl-tRNA to P site of 50S subunit  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  787 
788  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Interferes with the binding of peptidyl-tRNA to P site of 50S subunit  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  788 
789  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; suppressed AcPhe-Phe formation; suppressed peptide bond formation. c  Nitta I, Ueda T, Watanabe K. 1998. Possible involvement of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in peptide bond formation. RNA 4: 257-267.  789 
790  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  790 
791  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  791 
792  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  792 
793  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate.  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  793 
794  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate.  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  794 
795  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced rate of peptidyl transferase bond formation in vitro; severely detrimental to cell growth. Double mutation (G2252C/G2253C).  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  795 
796  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Severely detrimental to cell growth; promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 279-284. 2. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169.   796 
797  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Severely detrimental to cell growth; promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 279-284. 2. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169.   797 
798  23S  96092.1  2252    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Severely detrimental to cell growth; promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 279-284. 2. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169.   798 
799  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  42% control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  799 
800  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Slow growth rate.  Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 279-284.  800 
801  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  801 
802  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  802 
803  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Promoted frameshifting and readthrough of nonsense codons.  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  803 
804  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth.    804 
805  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  No effect on cell growth.    805 
806  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  19% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  806 
807  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Severely detrimental to cell growth; reduced rate of peptide bond formation in vitro. Double mutations (C2253C/2252C).  1. Lieberman, K.R. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16163-16169. 2. Samaha, R.R., Green R., and Noller, H.F. (1995) Nature 377, 309-314. 3. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H.,  807 
808  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to U  E. coli  562  Less than 5% control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P., and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264: 472-486.  808 
809  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to A  E. coli  562  Induced DMS reactivity; enhanced CMCT reactivity in G2238; induced kethoxal and CMCT reactivity in G2269 and G2271; induced CMCT reactivity in U2272; induced kethoxal reactivity in G2409 and G2410.  Gregory ST, Dahlberg AE, 1999. Mutations in the Conserved P Loop Perturb the Conformation of Two Structural Elements in the Peptidyl Transferase Center of 23 S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 1475- 1483.  809 
810  23S  96092.1  2253    HAIRPIN  134736208  G to C  E. coli  562  Induced DMS reactivity; enhanced CMCT reactivity in G2238; induced kethoxal and CMCT reactivity in G2269 and G2271; induced CMCT reactivity in U2272; induced kethoxal reactivity in G2409 and G2410.  Gregory ST, Dahlberg AE, 1999. Mutations in the Conserved P Loop Perturb the Conformation of Two Structural Elements in the Peptidyl Transferase Center of 23 S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 1475- 1483.  810 
811  23S  96092.1  2254    HAIRPIN  134736208  C to U  E. coli  562  Normal growth.  1. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  811 
812  23S  96092.1  2254    HAIRPIN  134736208  C to U  E. coli  562  Normal growth. Double mutation (C2254U/G2250A).  1. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32849-32856. 2. Spahn, C., Remme, J., Schafer, M., and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32857-32862.  812 
813  23S  96092.1  2438    2071  HELIX  134729656  U to A  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Amicetin resistance and reduced growth rate.  Leviev, I.G., Rodriguez-Fonseca, C., Phan, H., Garrett, R.A., Heliek, G., Noller, H.F., and Mankin, A.S (1994) EMBO J. 13, 1682-1686.  813 
814  23S  96092.1  2438    2071  HELIX  134729656  U to C  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Amicetin resistance.   Leviev, I.G., Rodriguez-Fonseca, C., Phan, H., Garrett, R.A., Heliek, G., Noller, H.F., and Mankin, A.S (1994) EMBO J. 13, 1682-1686.  814 
815  23S  96092.1  2438    2071  HELIX  134729656  U to G  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Unstable in presence or absence of amicetin  Leviev, I.G., Rodriguez-Fonseca, C., Phan, H., Garrett, R.A., Heliek, G., Noller, H.F., and Mankin, A.S (1994) EMBO J. 13, 1682-1686.  815 
816  23S  96092.1  2447    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Chloramphenicol resistance.  Dujon, B. (1980) Cell 20, 185-197.  816 
817  23S  96092.1  2447    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Anisomycin resistance.  Hummel, H. and Böck, A. (1987) Biochimie 69, 857-861.  817 
818  23S  96092.1  2450    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562  Lethal.  Vester, B. and Garrett, R.A. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3577-3587.  818 
819  23S  96092.1  2451    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to U  Mouse mitochondria  10090  Chloramphenicol resistance.  Kearsey, S.E. and Craig, I.W. (1981) Nature (London) 290: 607-608.  819 
820  23S  96092.1  2451    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  Like A2451G  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  820 
821  23S  96092.1  2451    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562  Like A2451G  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  821 
822  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Sulfolobus acidocaldarius  2285  Cbm-R, Lin-R  Aagaard, C., H. Phan, S. Trevisanato, and R. A. Garrett. 1994. A spontaneous point mutation in the single 23S rRNA gene of the thermophilic arachaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius confers multiple drug resistance. J. Bacteriol. 176:7744-7747.  822 
823  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to A  Human mitochondria  9606  Chloramphenicol resistance.  Blanc, H., Wright C.T., Bibb M.J., Wallace D.C., and Clayton D.A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 3789-3793.  823 
824  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Halobacterium  2243  Animosycin resistance.  Hummel, H. and Böck, A. (1987) Biochimie 69, 857-861.  824 
825  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Tetrahymena thermophilia  5911    Animosycin resistance  Sweeney, R., Yao, C.H., and Yao, M.C. (1991) Genetics 127: 327-334.  825 
826  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Chloramphenicol resistance.  Mankin, A.S. and Garrett, R.A. (1991) J. Bacteriol. 173: 3559-3563.   826 
827  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Mouse mitochondria  10090  Chloramphenicol resistance  Slott, E.F., Shade R.O., and Lansman, R.A. (1983) Mol. Cell. Biol. 3, 1694-1702.  827 
828  23S  96092.1  2452    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Low level sparsomycin resistance  Tan, G.T., DeBlasio, A., and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 261, 222-230.  828 
829  23S  96092.1  2453    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Anisomycin resistance  Hummel, H. and Böck, A. (1987) Biochimie 69, 857-861.  829 
830  23S  96092.1  2458    BULGE  134736496  G to A  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; lack of mutant ribosomes in translating polysome pool.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  830 
831  23S  96092.1  2458    BULGE  134736496  G to C  E. coli  562  Increased misreading.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  831 
832  23S  96092.1  2458    BULGE  134736496  G to A  E. coli  562  Increased misreading. Double mutation (G2458A/U2493C).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  832 
833  23S  96092.1  2458    BULGE  134736496  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased misreading. Double mutation (G2458C/U2493C).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  833 
834  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to G  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  834 
835  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to C  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  835 
836  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to A  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  836 
837  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to C  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutation (U2460C/G2490C).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  837 
838  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to G  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutation (U2460G/G2490A).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  838 
839  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to G  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutation (U2460G/G2490C).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  839 
840  23S  96092.1  2460    2490  HELIX  134730736  U to G  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutation (U2460G/G2490U).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  840 
841  23S  96092.1  2477    HAIRPIN  134736568  U to C  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational fidelity.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  841 
842  23S  96092.1  2477    HAIRPIN  134736568  U to A  E. coli  562  No effect on growth rate or translational fidelity.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  842 
843  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to A  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  843 
844  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to C  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  844 
845  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to U  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  845 
846  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to A  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutations (G2490A/U2460G).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  846 
847  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to C  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutations (G2490C/U2460C).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  847 
848  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to C  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutations (G2490C/U2460G).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  848 
849  23S  96092.1  2490    2460  HELIX  134730736  G to U  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift suppressor. Double mutations (G2490U/U2460G).  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  849 
850  23S  96092.1  2492    BULGE  134736604  U to G  E. coli  562  Frameshift suppressors.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  850 
851  23S  96092.1  2492    BULGE  134736604  U to A  E. coli  562  Frameshift suppressors.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  851 
852  23S  96092.1  2492    BULGE  134736604  U to C  E. coli  562  Frameshift suppressors.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  852 
853  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  del U  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors.  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705.  853 
854  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors  1. Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10. 2. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  854 
855  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to C  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors  1. Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10. 2. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868. 3.O?Conn  855 
856  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to C  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  856 
857  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  857 
858  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. Frameshift suppressors  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  858 
859  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased misreading. Double mutation (U2493C/G2458A)  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  859 
860  23S  96092.1  2493    2459  HELIX  134730700  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased misreading. Double mutation (U2493C/G2458C)  O?Connor, M. and Dahlberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  860 
861  23S  96092.1  2497    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Reduced growth rate.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  861 
862  23S  96092.1  2499    MULTISTEM  134738620  C to U  Halobacterium halobium  2242  Sparsomycin resistance  Tan, G.T., DeBlasio, A. and Mankin, A.S. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 261, 222-230  862 
863  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500A/C2501A  E. coli  562  Inhibits binding of 1A streptogramin B, antibiotic pristinamycin 1A on peptidyl transferase loop causing inhibition of peptide elongation. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  863 
864  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500A/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  864 
865  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500A/C2501U  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  865 
866  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500G/C2501A  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  866 
867  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500G/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  867 
868  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500G/C2501U  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  868 
869  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500C/C2501A  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  869 
870  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500C/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c.  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  870 
871  23S  96092.1  2500    MULTISTEM  134738620  U2500C/C2501A  E. coli  562  Like U2500A/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Garrett RA. 1999. Sites of Interaction of Streptogramin A and B Antibiotics in the Peptidyl Transferase Loop of 23 S rRNA and the Synergism of their Inhibitory Mechanisms. J. Mol. Biol. 286: 375-387.  871 
872  23S  96092.1  2502    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  Decreased growth rate  Vester, B. and Garrett, R.A. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3577-3587  872 
873  23S  96092.1  2503    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Chloramphenicol resistance  Dujon, B. (1980) Cell 20, 185-197  873 
874  23S  96092.1  2503    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to C  E. coli  562  Decreased growth rate; CAMr  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  874 
875  23S  96092.1  2503    MULTISTEM  134738620  A to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. CAMr  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  875 
876  23S  96092.1  2504    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Increased readthrough of stop codons and frameshifting; lethal  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  876 
877  23S  96092.1  2504    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  Increased readthrough of stop codons and frameshifting; lethal  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  877 
878  23S  96092.1  2504    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  Mouse mitochondria  10090  Chloramphenicol resistance  Blanc, H., Wright, C.T., Bibb, M.J., Wallace, D.C., and Clayton, D.A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 3789-3793  878 
879  23S  96092.1  2504    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  Human mitochondria  9606  Chloramphenicol resistance  Kearsey, S.E., and Craig, I.W. (1981) Nature (London) 290, 607-608  879 
880  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  14% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  880 
881  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  (With A1067U and thiostrepton) Temperature sensitive growth. a Hypersensitivity to CAM; increased sensitivity of in vitro translation. Slight increase in sensitivity to lincomycin. b No effect on translational accuracy.  1. Saarma, U. and Remme, J. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2. Saarma, U., Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Nigul, S., and Remme, J. (1993) ?The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution? 163-172.  881 
882  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  Excluded from 70S ribosomes; 17% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  882 
883  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to U  E. coli  562  <5% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  883 
884  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  Conferred resistance to the MLS drugs and chloramphenicol.  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.  884 
885  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  Like G2505A.  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.  885 
886  23S  96092.1  2505    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to U  E. coli  562  Like G2505A  Hansen LH, Mauvais P, Douthwaite S. 1999. The macrolide-kelotide antibiotic binding site is formed by structures in domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA. Molecular Microbiology 31 (2): 623-631.  886 
887  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Interfere with the binding of peptidyl-tRNA to P site of 50S subunit.  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  887 
888  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  Like U2506A  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  888 
889  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  Like U2056A  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  889 
890  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; 5% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  890 
891  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  20% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  891 
892  23S  96092.1  2506    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  <5% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  892 
893  23S  96092.1  2507    2582  HELIX  134730808  del C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; Inhibition of puromycin in reaction. b. Double mutation (del12507/G2581A)  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  893 
894  23S  96092.1  2507    2582  HELIX  134730808  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  894 
895  23S  96092.1  2507    2582  HELIX  134730808  C to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; Inhibition of puromycin in reaction. b. Double mutant (C2507U/G2581A).  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  895 
896  23S  96092.1  2507    2582  HELIX  134730808  C2507U/G2581A  E. coli  562  Severely impared peptidyl transferase activity. c  Nitta I, Ueda T, Watanabe K. 1998. Possible involvement of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in peptide bond formation. RNA 4: 257-267.  896 
897  23S  96092.1  2508    2580  HELIX  134730844  G to U  E. coli  562  Control level peptidyl transferase activity  1. Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10. 2. Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  897 
898  23S  96092.1  2508    2580  HELIX  134730844  A to U  E. coli  562  Eryr, Cdr, Cms; abolishes methylation of 23S rRNA by ErmE.   1. Sigmund, C.D., Ettayebi, M., and Morgan, E.A. (1984) Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 4653-4663. 2. Vannuffel, P., Di Giambattista, M., and Cocito, C. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 16114-16120. 3. Douthwaite, S. and Aagaard, C. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 725-731.   898 
899  23S  96092.1  2514    2570  HELIX  134730916  U to C  E. coli  562  Control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  899 
900  23S  96092.1  2516    2568  HELIX  134730916  A to U  E. coli  562  Control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  900 
901  23S  96092.1  2528    2535  HELIX  134730988  U to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. Control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  901 
902  23S  96092.1  2528    2535  HELIX  134730988  U to C  E. coli  562  Control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  902 
903  23S  96092.1  2530    HAIRPIN  134736676  A to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  903 
904  23S  96092.1  2546    MULTISTEM  134738296  U to C  E. coli  562  Control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  904 
905  23S  96092.1  2550    2558  HELIX  134731024  G to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  905 
906  23S  96092.1  2552    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  906 
907  23S  96092.1  2552    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to C  E. coli  562    Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  907 
908  23S  96092.1  2555    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to A  E. coli  562  Stimulates readthrough of stop codons and frameshifting; U to A is trpE91 frameshift suppressor; viable in low copy number plasmids, but lethal when expressed constitutively from lambda pL promoter  1. O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 9214-9218 2. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73,   908 
909  23S  96092.1  2555    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to C  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. Control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  909 
910  23S  96092.1  2555    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to C  E. coli  562  no effect  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 9214-9218  910 
911  23S  96092.1  2555    HAIRPIN  134736712  U to G  E. coli  562  Stimulates readthrough of stop codons and frameshifting; U to A is trpE91 frameshift suppressor; viable in low copy number plasmids, but lethal when expressed constitutively from lambda pL promoter  1. O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 9214-9218 2. O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73,   911 
912  23S  96092.1  2557    2551  HELIX  134731024  G to A  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. Intermediate decrease in peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  912 
913  23S  96092.1  2561    2547  HELIX  134731024  U to C  E. coli  562  Small decrease in peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  913 
914  23S  96092.1  2565    MULTISTEM  134738296  A to U  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. Very low peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  914 
915  23S  96092.1  2580    2508  HELIX  134730844  U to C  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. No peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  915 
916  23S  96092.1  2580    2508  HELIX  134730844  U to A  E. coli  562  Deleterious; <5% activity of 70S ribosomes.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  916 
917  23S  96092.1  2580    2508  HELIX  134730844  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; 12% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  917 
918  23S  96092.1  2580    2508  HELIX  134730844  U to C  E. coli  562  Reduced growth  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  918 
919  23S  96092.1  2580    2508  HELIX  134730844  U to G  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 6% activity of 70S ribosomes.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  919 
920  23S  96092.1  2581    BULGE  134736820  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal inhibition of puromycin in reaction  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  920 
921  23S  96092.1  2581    BULGE  134736820  G to A  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 22% activity of 70S ribosomes.  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  921 
922  23S  96092.1  2581    BULGE  134736820  G to C  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 13% activity of 70S ribosomes.  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  922 
923  23S  96092.1  2581    BULGE  134736820  G to U  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 18% activity of 70S ribosomes.  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  923 
924  23S  96092.1  2581    BULGE  134736820  G to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; inhibition of puromycin in reaction. Double mutation (G2581A/del2507)  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  924 
925  23S  96092.1  2582    2507  HELIX  134730808  G to C  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  925 
926  23S  96092.1  2582    2507  HELIX  134730808  G to U  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  926 
927  23S  96092.1  2582    2507  HELIX  134730808  G to A  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  1. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32849-32856 2. Spahn, C., Reeme, J., Schafer, M. and Nierhaus, K. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 32857-32862  927 
928  23S  96092.1  2583    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  928 
929  23S  96092.1  2583    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  Decreased misreading in vitro; increased ribosomes sensitivity to chloramphenicol; (with A1067U and thiostrepton) temperature sensitive growth and suppression of 1067U; mistranslation effects; Hypersensitivity to CAM; increased sensitivity of in vitro tr  1. Saarma, U. and Remme, J. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2396-2403. 2. Saarma, U., Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Nigul, S., and Remme, J. (1993) ?The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution? 163-172.  929 
930  23S  96092.1  2583    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  Less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  930 
931  23S  96092.1  2583    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to U  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; less than 5% of control level peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  931 
932  23S  96092.1  2584    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 20% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  932 
933  23S  96092.1  2584    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  Deleterious; 20% activity of 70S ribosomes  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  933 
934  23S  96092.1  2584    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Lethal growth effects. No peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  934 
935  23S  96092.1  2584    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal  Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486  935 
936  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; less than 6% of control peptidyl transferase activity; Disrupted binding of tRNA fragment, Decreased peptidyl transferase activity  1. Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486 2. Green, R., Samaha, R. and Noller, H. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 266, 40-50.  936 
937  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; less than 6% of control peptidyl transferase activity; Disrupted binding of tRNA fragment, Decreased peptidyl transferase activity  1. Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486 2. Green, R., Samaha, R. and Noller, H. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 266, 40-50.  937 
938  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  Dominant lethal; less than 6% of control peptidyl transferase activity; Disrupted binding of tRNA fragment, Decreased peptidyl transferase activity  1. Porse, B.T., Thi-Ngoc, H.P. and Garrett, R.A. (1996) J. Mol. Biol. 264, 472-486 2. Green, R., Samaha, R. and Noller, H. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 266, 40-50.  938 
939  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to A  E. coli  562  Inteferes with the binding of peptidyl-tRNA to P of 50S subunit  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  939 
940  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to G  E. coli  562  Like U2585A  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  940 
941  23S  96092.1  2585    MULTISTEM  134738620  U to C  E. coli  562  Like U2585A  Bocchetta M, Xiong L, Mankin AS. 1998. 23S rRNA positions essential for tRNA binding in ribosomal functional sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 3525-3530.  941 
942  23S  96092.1  2589    2605  HELIX  134731060  A to G  E. coli  562  (With A2058G and erythromycin) Slow growth rate. Strong reduction in peptidyl transferase activity.  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  942 
943  23S  96092.1  2600    2593  HELIX  134731096  A to U  E. coli  562  Small decrease in peptidyl transferase activity  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  943 
944  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602C/C2501A  E. coli  562  Inhibits binding of 1A streptogramin B, antibiotic pristinamycin 1A on peptidyl transferase loop causing inhibition of peptide elongation. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  944 
945  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602C/C2501U  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  945 
946  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602C/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  946 
947  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602U/C2501A  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  947 
948  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602U/C2501U  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  948 
949  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602U/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  949 
950  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602G/C2501A  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  950 
951  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602G/C2501U  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  951 
952  23S  96092.1  2602    BULGE  134736892  A2602G/C2501G  E. coli  562  Like A2602C/C2501A. c  Porse BT, Kirillov SV, Awayez MJ, Garrett RA. 1999. UV-induced modifications in the peptidyl transferase loop of 23S rRNA dependent on binding of the streptogramin B antibiotic pristinamycin IA. RNA 5: 585-595.  952 
953  23S  96092.1  2607    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  (With A1067U)  Saarma, U., Lewicki, B.T.U., Margus, T., Nigul, S., and Remme, J. (1993) ?The Translational Apparatus: Structure, Function, Regulation and Evolution? 163-172.  953 
954  23S  96092.1  2608    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to A  E. coli  562  (With A1067U)  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  954 
955  23S  96092.1  2608    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to U  E. coli  562  (With A1067U)  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  955 
956  23S  96092.1  2608    MULTISTEM  134738620  G to C  E. coli  562  (With A1067U)  Porse, B.T. and Garrett, R.A. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. 249, 1-10.  956 
957  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Erythromycin and spiramycin resistance  Gauthier, A., Turmel, M. and Lemieux, C. (1988) Mol. Gen. Genet. 214, 192-197.  957 
958  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G  Yeast mitochondria  4932  Erythromycin and spiramycin resistance  Sor, F. and Fukahara, H. (1984) Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 8313-8318.  958 
959  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to U  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Eryr and low level lincomycin and clindamycin resistance  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gillham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123, 281-292  959 
960  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii   3055    Eryr and low level lincomycin and clindamycin resistance  Harris, E.H., Burkhart, B.D., Gillham, N.W. and Boynton, J.E. (1989) Genetics 123, 281-292  960 
961  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to U  E. coli  562  Slightly Eryr; reduced methylation Double mutation (C2611U/ G2057A)  Vester, B., Hansen, L.H., and Douthwaite, S. (1995) RNA 1, 501-509  961 
962  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G  Chlamydomonas moewusii chl.  3054  Ery-R, Spi-LR   Gauthier, A., M. Turmel, and C. Lemieux. 1988. Mapping of chloroplast mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics in Chlamydomonas: evidence for a novel site of streptomycin resistance in the small subunit rRNA. Mol. Gen. Genet. 214:192-197.  962 
963  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G/U  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chl.  3055  Ery-R, Lin-MR  Harris, E. H., B. D. Burkhart, N. W. Gillham, and J. E. Boynton. 1989. Antibiotic resistance mutations in the chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: correlation of genetic and physical maps of the chloroplast genome. Genetics.   963 
964  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to U  Escherichia coli  562  Ery-R, Spi-S, Tyl-S, Lin-S  Vannuffel, P., M. Di Giambattista, E. A. Morgan, and C. Cocito. 1992. Identification of a single base change in ribosomal RNA leading to erythromycin resistance. J. Biol. Chem. 267:8377-8382.  964 
965  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to A/G  Streptococcus pneumoniae  1313  Mac-R, SB?S  Tait-Kamradt, A., T. Davies, M. Cronan, M. R. Jacobs, P. C. Appelbaum, and J. Sutcliffe. 2000. Mutations in 23S rRNA and L4 ribosomal protein account for resistance in Pneumococcal strains selected in vitro by macrolide passage. Antimicrobial Agents and  965 
966  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to G  Saccharomyces cerevisiae mit.  4932  Ery-R, Spi-R  Sor, F., and H. Fukuhara. 1984. Erythromycin and spiramycin resistance mutations of yeast mitochondria: nature of the rib2 locus in the large ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 12:8313-8318.  966 
967  23S  96092.1  2611    2057  HELIX  134729548  C to U  Saccharomyces cerevisiae mit.  4932  Ery-S, Spi-R  Sor, F., and H. Fukuhara. 1984. Erythromycin and spiramycin resistance mutations of yeast mitochondria: nature of the rib2 locus in the large ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 12:8313-8318.  967 
968  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  Mildly restrictive effect on fidelity. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  968 
969  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Significant increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  969 
970  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Stimulates readthrough of stop codons and frameshifting  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  970 
971  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  no effect  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  971 
972  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  no effect  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  972 
973  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  973 
974  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654C/ C2666A)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  974 
975  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654C/ C2666G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  975 
976  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654C/ C2666U)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  976 
977  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654G/ C2666A)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  977 
978  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Increased stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a. Double mutation (A2654G/ C2666G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  978 
979  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Significant increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654G/C2666G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  979 
980  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654U/C2666A)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  980 
981  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654U/C2666G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  981 
982  23S  96092.1  2654    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (A2654U/C2666U)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  982 
983  23S  96092.1  2655    HAIRPIN  134736928  del G  E. coli  562  EFG elongation factor does not bind to sarcin/ricin RNA region.  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  983 
984  23S  96092.1  2655    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to A  E. coli  562  Like ?G2655  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  984 
985  23S  96092.1  2655    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to U  E. coli  562  Like ?G2655  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  985 
986  23S  96092.1  2655    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Like ?G2655  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  986 
987  23S  96092.1  2658    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Undetectable levels of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S, 70S or polysome fractions  Marchant, A. and Hartley, M.R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 141-147  987 
988  23S  96092.1  2658    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Reduced levels of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S, 70S or polysome fractions. Double mutation (C2658G/G2663C)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  988 
989  23S  96092.1  2660    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Undectable levels of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S, 70S or polysome fractions  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  989 
990  23S  96092.1  2660    HAIRPIN  134736928  del A  E. coli  562  EFG elongation factor does not bind to sarcin/ricin RNA region.  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  990 
991  23S  96092.1  2660    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to G  E. coli  562  Like ?A2660  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  991 
992  23S  96092.1  2660    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to U  E. coli  562  Like ?A2660  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  992 
993  23S  96092.1  2660    HAIRPIN  134736928  A to C  E. coli  562  Like ?A2660  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  993 
994  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  del C  E. coli  562  EFG elongation factor does not bind to sarcin/ricin RNA region.  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  994 
995  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  Like ?C2661  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  995 
996  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Like ?C2661  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  996 
997  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Like ?C2661  Munishkin A, Wool IG. 1997. The ribosome-in-pieces: Binding of elongation factor EF-G to oligoribonucleotides that mimic the sarcin/ricin and thiostrepton domains of 23S ribosomal RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 12280-12284.  997 
998  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Decreased misreading; streptomycin dependent when expressed with Smr, hyperaccurate S12 mutation.  1. Tapprich, W.E. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1990) EMBO J. 9, 2649-2655 2. Tapio, S. and Isaksson, L.A. (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 202, 981-984 3. Melancon, P., Tapprich, W. and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 7896-7901 4. Bilgin, N. and Ehrenberg,  998 
999  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to U  E. coli  562    Melancon, P., Tapprich, W. and Brakier-Gingras, L. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 7896-7901  999 
1000  23S  96092.1  2661    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to A  E. coli  562  Growth unaffected; incorporated into ribosomes at wild-type levels  Marchant, A. and Hartley, M.R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 141-147  1000 
1001  23S  96092.1  2663    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced levels of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S, 70S or polysome fractions  Marchant, A. and Hartley, M.R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 141-147  1001 
1002  23S  96092.1  2663    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Reduced levels of mutant 23S rRNA in 50S, 70S or polysome fractions. Double mutation (G2663C/C2658G)  Marchant, A. and Hartley, M.R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 141-147  1002 
1003  23S  96092.1  2664    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Decreased growth rate, reduced viability and incorporation into polysomes.  Marchant, A. and Hartley, M.R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 226, 141-147  1003 
1004  23S  96092.1  2665    HAIRPIN  134736928  del G  E. coli  562  Not active in protein synthesis; lethal; resistant to sarcin; erythromycin growth inhibited. c  Macbeth MR, Wool IG. 1999. The Phenotype of Mutations of G2655 in the Sarcin/Ricin Domain of 23S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 965-975.  1004 
1005  23S  96092.1  2665    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to C  E. coli  562  Like ?G2665. c  Macbeth MR, Wool IG. 1999. The Phenotype of Mutations of G2655 in the Sarcin/Ricin Domain of 23S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 965-975.  1005 
1006  23S  96092.1  2665    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to U  E. coli  562  Not active in protein synthesis; lethal; resistance to sarcin. c  Macbeth MR, Wool IG. 1999. The Phenotype of Mutations of G2655 in the Sarcin/Ricin Domain of 23S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 965-975.  1006 
1007  23S  96092.1  2665    HAIRPIN  134736928  G to A  E. coli  562  Not lethal; resistant to sarcin; decreased protein synthesis activity. c  Macbeth MR, Wool IG. 1999. The Phenotype of Mutations of G2655 in the Sarcin/Ricin Domain of 23S Ribosomal RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 285: 965-975.  1007 
1008  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  No effect on stop codon readthrough or frameshifting. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1008 
1009  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  no effect  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  1009 
1010  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  no effect  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  1010 
1011  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  no effect on stop codon readthrough or frameshifting. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1011 
1012  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Increased stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1012 
1013  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Promotes misreading; trpE91 frameshift supressor  O?Connor, M., Brunelli, C.A., Firpo, M.A., Gregory, S.T., Lieberman, K.R., Lodmell, J.S., Moine, H., Van Ryk, D.I., and Dahlberg, A.E. (1995) Biochem. Cell Biology 73, 859-868.  1013 
1014  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a. Double mutation (C2666A/A2654C)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1014 
1015  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666A/A2654G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1015 
1016  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to A  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666A/A2654U)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1016 
1017  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666G/A2654C)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1017 
1018  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Increased stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666G/A2654C)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1018 
1019  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to G  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666G/A2654U)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1019 
1020  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666U/A2654C)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1020 
1021  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Significant increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666U/A2654G)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1021 
1022  23S  96092.1  2666    HAIRPIN  134736928  C to U  E. coli  562  Minor increase in stop codon readthrough and frameshifting. a Double mutation (C2666U/A2654U)  O?Connor, M. and Dalhberg, A.E. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2701-2705  1022